What is Waterpod?

Waterpod is:

  1. an annual weed occasionally found in agricultural fields;
  2. a mobile irrigation system; or
  3. a one person submarine?

 

 

If you chose a), you’d be right. Waterpod (Ellisia nyctelea L.) is an annual broadleaf plant native to Manitoba.  It’s often found in shaded, wooded areas but can also thrive in ditches and agricultural fields.  Our wet soils and cool spring must have provided ideal conditions for waterpod emergence as it’s being found in abundance in fields across the province.

The good news is waterpod isn’t much of agricultural pest.  Although it’s an annual, it emerges and flowers early and usually dies off in June.  It’s also very susceptible to glyphosate and most other burn-off and post-emergent herbicides.

Identifying characteristics:

  • oval cotyledons with a flat top;
  • deeply lobed and hairy leaves;
  • small, white 5-petaled flowers.

 

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When to Roll Your Soybeans

Most growers will roll their beans shortly after seeding in order to prevent stones from entering the combine at harvest time and to make harvesting easier and quicker. On dry springs when soil conditions could lead to soil drifting a grower can wait and roll there beans after they are up and are at the first trifoliate stage..

When rolling after emergence

  1. Do not roll at the Hook Stage- This is when beans are first emerging.
  2. Do not roll in the morning wait until air temperature are around 25C before you start to roll to avoid damage to the plants.
  3. Check for damaged plants to ensure plants are not breaking off.
  4. If damage is too sever wait for a warmer day.

 

The attached video outlines some of the reminders about rolling beans.

Soybean School West: Why Rolling Matters & Timing it Right

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How Can I Reduce Fertilizer Losses in Dry Spring Soils?

Dry spring weather is great for seeding but may play havoc with some fertilizer applications and losses.

1.Seedplaced fertilizer – Where seedbed moisture is low or when weather is hot and windy, reduce the rates of seedplaced nitrogen  by approximately 50 per cent. Table 7 of the Manitoba Soil Fertility Guide  http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/soil-fertility/soil-fertility-guide/nitrogen.html indicates safe rates of seedplaced urea under different soil texture, moisture and seedbed utilization conditions.  But as conditions dry, these rates should be reduced accordingly.

2.Surface applied urea or urea-forms (like UAN solution 28-0-0) – are vulnerable to volatilization losses.  The soil and environmental factors increasing risk of loss are well known and include:moist soil conditions, followed by rapid drying

  • high wind velocity
  • warm soil temperatures
  • high soil pH (> pH 7.5)
  • high lime content in surface soil
  • coarse soil texture (sandy)
  • low organic matter content
  • high amount of surface residue (Zero Till)

Volatilization losses can be reduced with dribble placement of UAN versus broadcast applications and the use of an urease inhibitor.  The active ingredient NBPT used in Agrotain Ultra is now marketed by a number of companies.  To expect the same level of protection as Agrotain Ultra, ensure the application rate is similar, since formulation strength and recommended rates differ among suppliers.  Agrotain Ultra contains 27% NBPT with an application rate of 3.1 l/tonne urea or 1.6 l/tonne UAN.

3. Last year the lack of rainfall through much of May left surface applied nitrogen stranded at the surface.  If possible, a portion of the crops nitrogen for cereals and canola should be in-soil placed.  In season applications should be targeted prior to stem elongation of cereals and bolting of canola.

 

 

 

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Seeding for Target Plant Stands, not lbs/ac

Seed can be an expensive input, but a poor crop stand can be lost profit.  To maximize your seed, still get the stand needed to optimize yield, start calculating the real seeding rate needed for the plant stand desired and not gauging seeding rate by lbs/ac or bu/ac.

The following are the standard recommendations for FINAL plant stand, not what you are putting in the ground. Germination, TKW and mortality are very important to use in the equation to determine actual seeds/ac to plant.  For example, if you assume your germination is 96% and its only 85% and conditions turn cold and wet (increasing mortality), you may have a lot thinner stand than you anticipated (which could mean a harder time controlling weeds).

                    Grain Crops                               Oilseed Crops                   Pulse Crops        
Barley Wheat Oat Corn Canola Sunflower Flax Peas Soybean Dry Bean*
Plants/ft2 22-25 23-28 18-23 7-14 37-56 7-9
 Plants/ac (1000s) 26-30 18-22 180-210 85-100
Mortality Rates (%) 10-15 10-15 10-15 10-15 20-60 10 40-50 5-15 5-10 5-10

*Navy Bean = pinto beans on lower end and navy bean require higher plant stands

Source:  Manitoba Agriculture, Canola Council of Canada, Flax Council of Canada, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

 Seeding Rate (lbs/ac) = target plant stand/ft2 x TKW (g) / % expected seed survival x 10                       

 e.g. FLAX Seeding Rate= 45 plants/ft2 x  5g (TKW) / ((88% germination x (1- 40% mortality)) X 10 = 43 lbs/ac

Other information

Wheat – http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/production/print,aiming-for-higher-wheat-yields.html

Using 1000 Kernel Weight for Calculating Seeding Rates – http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/%24department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex81

Canola – http://www.canolacouncil.org/canola-encyclopedia/crop-establishment/seeding-rate/

Optimizing Plant Establishment – http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/production/pubs/optimizing-stand-establishment-in-less-than-optimal-conditions.pdf

 

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Crop Germination – What Soil Temperatures are Needed?

Soil temperature drives germination and seedling emergence, so how cold is too cold?  What is your soil temperature at your targeted seeding depth….today? Finally, when should you be measuring the soil temperature?

The following are the minimum temperatures needed for germination to begin in various crops.  These values should be regarded as approximate, since germination depends on factors other than just temperature.  But, if soils are too cool, germination will be delayed and cause uneven or poor seedling emergence.

 

Crop Temperature     (°C)
Wheat 4
Barley 3
Oats 5
Corn 10
Canola 5
Flax 9
Sunflower 6
Edible Beans 10
Peas 4
Soybeans 10

Sources: North Dakota State University Extension Service, Alberta Agriculture & Rural Development and Canola Council of Canada

Getting an accurate measure on soil temperature

Determine how deep you will be seeding. Then place your soil thermometer at the targeted depth. Take two measurements throughout the day: one in the morning (8am) and one in the early evening (8pm).  Average the two readings to determine the average soil temperature. The recommendation is to take readings for two to three days to establish a multiple day average and to measure at a number of locations in the field, to account for field variability.

Still not sure and short on time?  See the soil temperature data for various locations across Manitoba from the MB Ag-Weather Program: https://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/soil-temperature.html.  This can be used as a guideline for an area, but in-field measurements are going to tell you what is actually going on in your field!

 

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Economics & Agronomics – Crop Management Decisions Need Both!

It’s an obvious statement to say successful farm management decisions need both agronomic and economic considerations. Farmers weigh out input cost versus the benefit to yield and quality of grain before making the decisions to buy and use new or additional products.

 Agronomy and economic crop management goes much beyond inputs. Consideration of crop rotation, Cost of Production, seeding date and weather indicators for disease all need to be considered. Within agronomic decisions there can be tools to estimate the economic impacts of different decisions. The ‘My Farm’, ‘Cost of Production’, ‘Canola Reseed Calculator’ and ‘Sclerotinia Treatment Decision Tool’ are all based on yield trends and agronomy to help make economic decisions easier.

See slideshow at http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/business-and-economics/financial-management/pubs/presentation-mac-agronomicseconomics.pdf

Submitted by Roy Arnott – Farm Business Management, Killarney and Anastasia Kubinec – Crops Branch, Carman.

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Waterhemp Now a Manitoba Weed

Can you identify the plants in the two pots below?

waterhemp-and-redroot-pigweed

The plants on the right are redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus); the plants on the left are waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus).

Unfortunately, the need to distinguish between these closely related weed species has become a reality for Manitoba producers and agronomists since waterhemp was found in the province in the fall of 2016. Suspect plant specimen collected from a soybean field in the RM of Taché was verified as waterhemp by staff with the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Collection of Vascular plants in Ottawa.  Waterhemp occurs in neighbouring states and provinces, including Minnesota, North Dakota and Ontario.

Both species thrive in agricultural fields where they compete with crops for nutrients, moisture and light. Waterhemp has no hairs on its stem or leaves, which can be used to distinguish it from redroot pigweed when plants are small.  The lack of hairs give waterhemp leaves a ‘glossy’ look unlike that of the ‘dull’ green leaves of redroot pigweed.  Also, waterhemp leaves are lanceolate in shape (longer than they are wide) compared to the more ovate leaves of redroot pigweed.  Colour is not a reliable identifying characteristic since both species can be green, red or variations of the two colours.

Mature waterhemp plants tend to be more branched than redroot pigweed. And unlike redroot pigweed, which has male and female flowers on the same plant, waterhemp has separate male and female plants.  Waterhemp inflorescence are long, slender and vary in colour compared with the compact, prickly inflorescence of redroot pigweed.  Like most pigweeds, waterhemp is a prolific seed producer with up to a million seeds per plant (under ideal conditions).

Waterhemp populations resistant to group 2, group 9 (glyphosate) and group 2+9 exist throughout the US, including Minnesota and North Dakota, and in Ontario. Seed from one of the plants found in Manitoba have been sent to Ontario for resistance testing.

Information on waterhemp will be added to Manitoba Agriculture’s weeds webpage shortly (http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/weeds/) and will be included at the Weed Seedling Identification Day (hosted by the Manitoba Weed Supervisors Association).  Manitoba Agriculture staff will conduct a waterhemp surveillance program in and around the RM of Taché in 2017.

Additional information on waterhemp is available at: http://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/BP/gwc-13.pdf (excluding herbicide recommendations).

waterhemp-tone-ag-consulting

Photo: Waterhemp in Manitoba, Tone Ag Consulting

Submitted by: Jeanette Gaultier, Provincial Weed Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

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Many Options to View Current & Past Editions of Seed Manitoba

Did you know you can view the 2017 edition of Seed Manitoba, as well as past editions, on www.seedmb.ca?  Well, you can!

Flip-view digital editions of the current guide (2017), as well as the six most recent editions, are available at http://www.seedmb.ca/digital-edition/.

digital-editions-screenshot-of-seedmb

Screen shot of digital editions of Seed Manitoba on www.seedmb.ca

Also, full PDF versions are available at http://www.seedmb.ca/digital-edition/pdf-editions-and-separate-section-pdfs/ where you can download the entire edition, or the commodity section you are most interested in.

pdf-versions-of-seedmb

Screen shot of PDF versions of Seed Manitoba on www.seedmb.ca

Seed Manitoba is a collaboration of Manitoba Agriculture, Manitoba Seed Growers’ Association and Farm Business Communication.

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Updated Cereal/Oilseed/Pulse Maps for Yield, Acreage and Seeding Date Now Available

Manitoba Agriculture’s Crop Industry Branch and MASC has updated and posted yield, acreage and seeding date maps for cereal, oilseed and pulse crops at https://www.masc.mb.ca/masc.nsf/mmpp_index.html

The maps can be found at the link above under the heading “Thematic Crop Maps“‎. Time frame in most cases is 2006 to 2015 (10 year), but 2011 to 2015 is also available for soybean, feed wheat and corn to reflect the acreage changes that occurred in the past 5 years.

Many thanks to Doug Wilcox‎ from MASC for the database, and Les Mitchell and Natalie Azure from the Crop Industry Branch who developed and created the maps for this project.

 

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SEED MANITOBA 2017 NOW AVAILABLE!

picture1SEED MANITOBA 2017, the Variety Selection and Growers Source Guide, is a collaborative effort between Manitoba Agriculture, the Manitoba Seed Growers’ Association and the Manitoba Cooperator.  SEED MANITOBA remains one of the best sources for unbiased variety performance information with yield and quality information collected at various sites across Manitoba.

SEED MANITOBA 2017 will be available:

  • Local seed growers
  • Subscribers of the Manitoba Cooperator
  • Local Manitoba Agriculture Offices

 

A digital edition of SEED MANITOBA 2017 will also be available at www.seedmb.ca

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