Manitoba Weed Update

Despite rainy and windy conditions, early post-emergent herbicide applications are nearing completion in most crops. Emergence of cool season annual weeds was relatively unaffected by earlier cool, dry conditions while emergence of warm season annual weeds was delayed, resulting in herbicide staging issues for some producers.  Emergence of warm season annuals, like redroot pigweed and barnyard grass, is now well underway due to recent rainfall.

Weed Identification:

Weed identification form: www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/crop-diagnostic-services/.  Weeds submitted to Manitoba Agriculture for identification in the previous week include:

Black nightshade:

Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) is a warm season annual problematic in potato, dry bean and soybean production.  What to look for: small seedlings with pointed ovate cotyledons, currently in the cotyledon to early true leaf stage (see picture submitted to MB Ag).

Galinsoga species:

Hairy galinsoga (Galinsoga quadriradiata) and smallflower galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora) are annual species also referred to as ‘quickweed’ based on their ability to set seed within only weeks after emerging.  What to look for: toothed, opposite leaves and ‘club’ shaped cotyledons (see picture submitted to MB Ag).

Oak-leaved goosefoot:

Of the various goosefoot species coming in for identification, oak-leaved goosefoot (Chenopodium glaucum) has been the most common.  What to look for: goosefoot shaped leaf, often with distinct yellow-green veins.  Stems may be red and green to red.  Typically grows more prostrate than lamb’s-quarters.  Oak-leaved goosefoot does especially well in wet and/or saline areas.

Weed Management Issues:

Manitoba Agriculture staff have begun to receive herbicide drift complaints and are providing advice accordingly. Talking to the applicator should always be the first step in a suspected drift incident.  Herbicides involved in the drift complaints to date include glyphosate, group 2 and group 4 herbicides.

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Manitoba Crop Report #5 – June 5, 2017

Hot dry weather dominated the past week, with limited precipitation. Strong winds causing soil drifting in fields with limited ground cover. Seeding is 95% complete, with exception of The Pas region which is delayed from earlier heavy rains. Crops planted are advancing, with herbicide applications starting. Flea beetle feeding has been seen in canola. Haying is starting this week. For more information visit http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/crop-report-archive/crop-report-2017-06-05.html

Spring Cleaning – Include Disposal of Old Malathion!

If malathion is in your shed, it may be time to revisit your inventory. According to a recent advisory issued by Health Canada (http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/recall-alert-rappel-avis/hc-sc/2017/63150a-eng.php), Malathion products purchased prior to June 2016 should not be used. This advisory applies to all products including agricultural and mosquito control products containing malathion. The advisory was issued because over an extended period of time, malathion can convert into a toxic metabolite called isomalathion. This conversion can be faster if label directions for storage are not followed properly. If you are purchasing malathion products in 2017, be sure to check expiry date on the packaging.

What to do with old/obsolete inventory of malathion products?

  1. Malathion products older than one year cannot be used and will need to be disposed.
  2. If agricultural malathion products purchased prior to June 2016 are being used, users must test the product prior to use. Malathion products must be tested at an accredited laboratory and meet the requirements outlined in Health Canada Advisory. Products over a year in storage must be disposed.
  3. For more information on disposal of old/obsolete products, https://www.gov.mb.ca/sd/eal/pesticide/info_pestwaste.pdf

Steps to consider for safe use of pesticide products

  1. Before using any product, including malathion products, confirm the registration status and class of the pesticide product on Pest Management Regulatory Agency’s (PMRA) website or mobile application.
  2. Most restricted class pesticides require a license for purchase and use. Appropriate license must be secured before using a restricted pesticide product. Farmer exemption does not apply for restricted pesticide products.
  3. Verify that the label recommended storage conditions are met.
  4. Follow directions on a pesticide product label.
  5. Obsolete products and empty containers must be disposed properly

Additional questions can be directed to Health Canada (613) 957-2991, 1866-225-0709

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Manitoba Crop Report #2 – May 8, 2017

Warm, dry and windy weather have prevailed across much on the province, allowing for field accessibility for field work and seeding. It is estimated 20-25% of seeding is complete, with cereal planting most advanced and field peas, canola, corn also being seeded. For to complete report, visit:  http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/crop-report-archive/crop-report-2017-05-08.html

Manitoba Ag Weather Network

Manitoba Agriculture has a number of weather stations across the province that measure air/soil temperature, soil moisture, wind direction and speed.  For local information please visit

Central/East/Interlake Regions: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/current-conditions-summary1.html

Southwest/Northwest Regions: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/current-conditions-summary2.html

Previous Day on Highs/Lows and Average Soil Temperature at:

Central/Easter/Interlake:http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/yesterdays-summary1.html  Southwest/Northwest: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/yesterdays-summary2.html

Another useful application of the data gathered by the network for rainfall can be found at Rain Watch http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/rain-watch.html

 

 

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Seeding for Target Plant Stands, not lbs/ac

Seed can be an expensive input, but a poor crop stand can be lost profit.  To maximize your seed, still get the stand needed to optimize yield, start calculating the real seeding rate needed for the plant stand desired and not gauging seeding rate by lbs/ac or bu/ac.

The following are the standard recommendations for FINAL plant stand, not what you are putting in the ground. Germination, TKW and mortality are very important to use in the equation to determine actual seeds/ac to plant.  For example, if you assume your germination is 96% and its only 85% and conditions turn cold and wet (increasing mortality), you may have a lot thinner stand than you anticipated (which could mean a harder time controlling weeds).

                    Grain Crops                               Oilseed Crops                   Pulse Crops        
Barley Wheat Oat Corn Canola Sunflower Flax Peas Soybean Dry Bean*
Plants/ft2 22-25 23-28 18-23 7-14 37-56 7-9
 Plants/ac (1000s) 26-30 18-22 180-210 85-100
Mortality Rates (%) 10-15 10-15 10-15 10-15 20-60 10 40-50 5-15 5-10 5-10

*Navy Bean = pinto beans on lower end and navy bean require higher plant stands

Source:  Manitoba Agriculture, Canola Council of Canada, Flax Council of Canada, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

 Seeding Rate (lbs/ac) = target plant stand/ft2 x TKW (g) / % expected seed survival x 10                       

 e.g. FLAX Seeding Rate= 45 plants/ft2 x  5g (TKW) / ((88% germination x (1- 40% mortality)) X 10 = 43 lbs/ac

Other information

Wheat – http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/production/print,aiming-for-higher-wheat-yields.html

Using 1000 Kernel Weight for Calculating Seeding Rates – http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/%24department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex81

Canola – http://www.canolacouncil.org/canola-encyclopedia/crop-establishment/seeding-rate/

Optimizing Plant Establishment – http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/production/pubs/optimizing-stand-establishment-in-less-than-optimal-conditions.pdf

 

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Waterhemp Now a Manitoba Weed

Can you identify the plants in the two pots below?

waterhemp-and-redroot-pigweed

The plants on the right are redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus); the plants on the left are waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus).

Unfortunately, the need to distinguish between these closely related weed species has become a reality for Manitoba producers and agronomists since waterhemp was found in the province in the fall of 2016. Suspect plant specimen collected from a soybean field in the RM of Taché was verified as waterhemp by staff with the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Collection of Vascular plants in Ottawa.  Waterhemp occurs in neighbouring states and provinces, including Minnesota, North Dakota and Ontario.

Both species thrive in agricultural fields where they compete with crops for nutrients, moisture and light. Waterhemp has no hairs on its stem or leaves, which can be used to distinguish it from redroot pigweed when plants are small.  The lack of hairs give waterhemp leaves a ‘glossy’ look unlike that of the ‘dull’ green leaves of redroot pigweed.  Also, waterhemp leaves are lanceolate in shape (longer than they are wide) compared to the more ovate leaves of redroot pigweed.  Colour is not a reliable identifying characteristic since both species can be green, red or variations of the two colours.

Mature waterhemp plants tend to be more branched than redroot pigweed. And unlike redroot pigweed, which has male and female flowers on the same plant, waterhemp has separate male and female plants.  Waterhemp inflorescence are long, slender and vary in colour compared with the compact, prickly inflorescence of redroot pigweed.  Like most pigweeds, waterhemp is a prolific seed producer with up to a million seeds per plant (under ideal conditions).

Waterhemp populations resistant to group 2, group 9 (glyphosate) and group 2+9 exist throughout the US, including Minnesota and North Dakota, and in Ontario. Seed from one of the plants found in Manitoba have been sent to Ontario for resistance testing.

Information on waterhemp will be added to Manitoba Agriculture’s weeds webpage shortly (http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/weeds/) and will be included at the Weed Seedling Identification Day (hosted by the Manitoba Weed Supervisors Association).  Manitoba Agriculture staff will conduct a waterhemp surveillance program in and around the RM of Taché in 2017.

Additional information on waterhemp is available at: http://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/BP/gwc-13.pdf (excluding herbicide recommendations).

waterhemp-tone-ag-consulting

Photo: Waterhemp in Manitoba, Tone Ag Consulting

Submitted by: Jeanette Gaultier, Provincial Weed Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

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Many Options to View Current & Past Editions of Seed Manitoba

Did you know you can view the 2017 edition of Seed Manitoba, as well as past editions, on www.seedmb.ca?  Well, you can!

Flip-view digital editions of the current guide (2017), as well as the six most recent editions, are available at http://www.seedmb.ca/digital-edition/.

digital-editions-screenshot-of-seedmb

Screen shot of digital editions of Seed Manitoba on www.seedmb.ca

Also, full PDF versions are available at http://www.seedmb.ca/digital-edition/pdf-editions-and-separate-section-pdfs/ where you can download the entire edition, or the commodity section you are most interested in.

pdf-versions-of-seedmb

Screen shot of PDF versions of Seed Manitoba on www.seedmb.ca

Seed Manitoba is a collaboration of Manitoba Agriculture, Manitoba Seed Growers’ Association and Farm Business Communication.

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A Look at FDK & DON in Winter Wheat Varieties

In 2014, a study was initiated to evaluate how winter wheat varieties being tested post-registration by MCVET respond to fusarium head blight under non-misted conditions (natural infection) by assessing harvested samples for fusarium damaged kernels (FDK) and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation. The results from 2014 can be found here: Winter Wheat Varieties Response to Fusarium Head Blight in 2014 and Effect of Fusarium Head Blight on Winter Wheat Varieties in 2014.

2015 Results. With funding from Winter Cereals Manitoba Inc., the study continued in 2015. Composite samples of eight registered winter wheat varieties were collected from the three replicates at four MCVET sites: Carman, Hamiota, Melita & Minto.  BioVision Seed Labs in Winnipeg, Manitoba conducted the analysis. The level of FDK (%) was measured as per the Official Grain Grading Guide of the Canadian Grain Commission. The accumulation of DON (ppm) was measured using the ELISA test method.

The variety Emerson, rated as Resistant (R), had lower levels of FDK and DON compared to the other varieties (see Figure 1).  Some varieties rated as Susceptible (S) consistently showed higher FHB severity, FDK and DON levels across all sites. However, data also shows there is variability of performance within the five resistance categories of Resistant (R) to Susceptible (S).

Figure 1: Average Levels of Fusarium Damaged Kernel (FDK) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) by Winter Wheat Variety at Four MCVET Sites in 2015

2015-average-don-fdk-at-four-mcvet-winter-wheat-sites

Figure 2: Fusarium Damaged Kernel (FDK) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) Comparisons at Four MCVET Sites for Winter Wheat Varieties in 2015.

2015-fdk-don-comparisons-at-four-mcvet-winter-wheat-sites

 

2016 Results. In the 2016 Manitoba Fusarium Head Blight Survey, the average FHB index for winter wheat was 2.7% which was slightly below the 10-year-average (3.1%).  Winter Cereals Manitoba Inc. again is providing funding to have the MCVET winter wheat varieties tested for FDK and DON. Analysis is currently underway and results should be available for the Winter Cereals Manitoba Inc. Annual General Meeting on March 15, 2017.

Summary. Extensive research over the past 20 years shows using multiple management options, including crop rotation, fungicide application and variety selection, is the best way to mitigate the risk of FHB. Although FHB infection will always be highly influenced by environment, the first step is to select varieties with improved resistance and then use them in combination with other management strategies. In years where there is higher disease pressure, such as 2014, variety selection will be critical to minimize the impact of FHB on yield and quality. However, under high disease pressure yield and quality loss due to FHB can still happen in varieties that have improved resistance as resistance does not equal immunity.

Remember, caution must be used with one year of data, as presented here. Using data derived over two or more growing seasons over multiple sites is always recommended to provide the best indicator of variety performance.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Special thanks to: Winter Cereals Manitoba Inc. for providing funding to conduct FDK & DON analysis; BioVision Seed Labs who conducted the FDK and DON analysis; Manitoba Crop Variety Evaluation Team (MCVET) & contractors who provided the harvested samples.

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Updated Cereal/Oilseed/Pulse Maps for Yield, Acreage and Seeding Date Now Available

Manitoba Agriculture’s Crop Industry Branch and MASC has updated and posted yield, acreage and seeding date maps for cereal, oilseed and pulse crops at https://www.masc.mb.ca/masc.nsf/mmpp_index.html

The maps can be found at the link above under the heading “Thematic Crop Maps“‎. Time frame in most cases is 2006 to 2015 (10 year), but 2011 to 2015 is also available for soybean, feed wheat and corn to reflect the acreage changes that occurred in the past 5 years.

Many thanks to Doug Wilcox‎ from MASC for the database, and Les Mitchell and Natalie Azure from the Crop Industry Branch who developed and created the maps for this project.

 

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