Poisonous Plants of the Carrot Family
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Poisonous Plants of the Carrot Family
When wheat prices and protein premiums/discounts are high, there is renewed grower interest in late N applications to enhance wheat protein. Following is an old recipe we have recently evaluated in on-farm-tests and small plot studies.
Under such treatments we have observed leaf burn of 8-15% of the leaf area without detrimental impact on yield. The one instance sprayed at mid day in high temperatures reduced yields by 6 bu/ac with 31% leaf damage . Protein increase ranged from 0-1.5% and averages are reported in Table 1.
Table 1. Effect of post anthesis N (PAN) on wheat class yield and protein (2015-16).
|CNHR (6 sites)||CWRS (7 sites)||CPS (2 sites)|
|Base N & PAN||78||68||65|
|Base N & PAN||13.6||14.6||14.1|
In most cases, the farmer’s base rate of N was high at 150-200 lb N/ac (soil N plus fertilizer), so the extra N was not required for high protein.
The full on-farm-test report is available from the Manitoba Wheat and Barley Growers Association at: http://www.mbwheatandbarley.ca/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/OFT-summary-2017-FINAL.pdf
If attempting such a practice, leave a check strip – not so much for yield determination, but to gauge the success in protein increase.
Despite rainy and windy conditions, early post-emergent herbicide applications are nearing completion in most crops. Emergence of cool season annual weeds was relatively unaffected by earlier cool, dry conditions while emergence of warm season annual weeds was delayed, resulting in herbicide staging issues for some producers. Emergence of warm season annuals, like redroot pigweed and barnyard grass, is now well underway due to recent rainfall.
Weed identification form: www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/crop-diagnostic-services/. Weeds submitted to Manitoba Agriculture for identification in the previous week include:
Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) is a warm season annual problematic in potato, dry bean and soybean production. What to look for: small seedlings with pointed ovate cotyledons, currently in the cotyledon to early true leaf stage (see picture submitted to MB Ag).
Hairy galinsoga (Galinsoga quadriradiata) and smallflower galinsoga (Galinsoga parviflora) are annual species also referred to as ‘quickweed’ based on their ability to set seed within only weeks after emerging. What to look for: toothed, opposite leaves and ‘club’ shaped cotyledons (see picture submitted to MB Ag).
Of the various goosefoot species coming in for identification, oak-leaved goosefoot (Chenopodium glaucum) has been the most common. What to look for: goosefoot shaped leaf, often with distinct yellow-green veins. Stems may be red and green to red. Typically grows more prostrate than lamb’s-quarters. Oak-leaved goosefoot does especially well in wet and/or saline areas.
Weed Management Issues:
Manitoba Agriculture staff have begun to receive herbicide drift complaints and are providing advice accordingly. Talking to the applicator should always be the first step in a suspected drift incident. Herbicides involved in the drift complaints to date include glyphosate, group 2 and group 4 herbicides.
Many Manitoba corn fields are showing some degree of leaf purpling this spring. Here’s a quick look at why leaves turn purple and what possible causes may be.
Leaf purpling is a sign of stress. The leaves are actively producing photosynthates (sugars) but conditions are not allowing normal sugar metabolism or translocation in the plant. The purple anthocyanin pigment is associated with this sugar buildup in leaf tissue. The amount of purpling is genetically controlled, so hybrids with more of the purpling genes will appear worse than others, even though all suffer the same stress.
Common stress conditions triggering this purpling are:
Purpling will often dissipate with warmer days and nights and yield loss is slight if any. But severe purpling is a symptom of crop stress, so the astute crop advisor or farmer will exploit it as a visual signal and will investigate the cause so to manage better next year.
If you have only grown glyphosate tolerant soybeans in the past, the move to conventional soybeans can offer up new challenges in regards to weed control. Good weed control is critical for maximizing yield. Here are a few quick tips:
The future of side by side soybean fields using different herbicides is here with Xtend soybeans commercially available in 2017. Having more herbicide tools to combat the herbicide resistant weeds is important, but careful use is critical, to prevent crop damage and stay friends with our neighbors. Here are a few things to consider:
Source: Guide to Field Crop Protection 2017 p. 163
You’ve probably read about media dubbed ‘superweeds’ like glyphosate-resistant palmer amaranth and giant ragweed. Glyphosate-resistant weeds often earn this distinction because they are viewed as a greater management hardship for producers than weeds resistant to other herbicide mechanisms of actions (MOAs). And maybe rightly so. Farmers dealing with glyphosate resistant weeds elsewhere in the world have been reduced to tillage and hand rouging for weed control in some crops.
But, while glyphosate use dominates the Roundup Ready corn, soybean and/or cotton rotation in the US, group 2 herbicides play an (equally?) important role in our more diversified cropping system. For example, group 2 herbicides are used in crops like alfalfa, corn, dry beans, field pea, potato, soybean, sunflower, and in Clearfield and other group 2-tolerant crops. These herbicides are also a popular choice for group 1-resistant grassy weed control in cereals.
The point of this article isn’t to downplay the importance of glyphosate resistance but to elevate consideration of group 2 resistance. In Manitoba, over 10 weed species are known to have biotypes resistant to group 2 herbicides. And herbicide-resistant weed surveys led by AAFC indicate that the prevalence of certain species is increasing (Figure 1).
The following practices can help reduce the risk of developing herbicide resistant weeds and/or managing existing resistant weed populations:
If you suspect group 2 resistance in a weed species on your farm, it’s best to verify this by herbicide-resistance testing. Unfortunately there‘s no quick method – seed from the suspect population needs to be allowed to mature and collected. Samples can be submitted to AgQuest for testing in Manitoba.
In my opinion, knowing if you have group 2 resistance and assessing your risk factors is worth it. Because while glyphosate resistance is grabbing headlines, group 2 resistance may be quietly growing in your fields.
Things to consider:
If you have made the decision to spray, what else do you need to know?
Reference: Liu, C. 2014. Evaluation of fungicides for management of blackleg disease on canola and QoI-fungicide resistance in Leptosphaeria maculans in Western Canada. Master of Science Thesis. University of Manitoba. 172 pp.
Hot dry weather dominated the past week, with limited precipitation. Strong winds causing soil drifting in fields with limited ground cover. Seeding is 95% complete, with exception of The Pas region which is delayed from earlier heavy rains. Crops planted are advancing, with herbicide applications starting. Flea beetle feeding has been seen in canola. Haying is starting this week. For more information visit http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/crop-report-archive/crop-report-2017-06-05.html
If you chose a), you’d be right. Waterpod (Ellisia nyctelea L.) is an annual broadleaf plant native to Manitoba. It’s often found in shaded, wooded areas but can also thrive in ditches and agricultural fields. Our wet soils and cool spring must have provided ideal conditions for waterpod emergence as it’s being found in abundance in fields across the province.
The good news is waterpod isn’t much of agricultural pest. Although it’s an annual, it emerges and flowers early and usually dies off in June. It’s also very susceptible to glyphosate and most other burn-off and post-emergent herbicides.