Manitoba Crop Report #5 – June 5, 2017

Hot dry weather dominated the past week, with limited precipitation. Strong winds causing soil drifting in fields with limited ground cover. Seeding is 95% complete, with exception of The Pas region which is delayed from earlier heavy rains. Crops planted are advancing, with herbicide applications starting. Flea beetle feeding has been seen in canola. Haying is starting this week. For more information visit http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/crop-report-archive/crop-report-2017-06-05.html

What is Waterpod?

Waterpod is:

  1. an annual weed occasionally found in agricultural fields;
  2. a mobile irrigation system; or
  3. a one person submarine?

 

 

If you chose a), you’d be right. Waterpod (Ellisia nyctelea L.) is an annual broadleaf plant native to Manitoba.  It’s often found in shaded, wooded areas but can also thrive in ditches and agricultural fields.  Our wet soils and cool spring must have provided ideal conditions for waterpod emergence as it’s being found in abundance in fields across the province.

The good news is waterpod isn’t much of agricultural pest.  Although it’s an annual, it emerges and flowers early and usually dies off in June.  It’s also very susceptible to glyphosate and most other burn-off and post-emergent herbicides.

Identifying characteristics:

  • oval cotyledons with a flat top;
  • deeply lobed and hairy leaves;
  • small, white 5-petaled flowers.

 

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When to Roll Your Soybeans

Most growers will roll their beans shortly after seeding in order to prevent stones from entering the combine at harvest time and to make harvesting easier and quicker. On dry springs when soil conditions could lead to soil drifting a grower can wait and roll there beans after they are up and are at the first trifoliate stage..

When rolling after emergence

  1. Do not roll at the Hook Stage- This is when beans are first emerging.
  2. Do not roll in the morning wait until air temperature are around 25C before you start to roll to avoid damage to the plants.
  3. Check for damaged plants to ensure plants are not breaking off.
  4. If damage is too sever wait for a warmer day.

 

The attached video outlines some of the reminders about rolling beans.

Soybean School West: Why Rolling Matters & Timing it Right

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Why is the 2017 Guide to Crop Protection SO BIG?

If you’ve picked up a copy of the 2017 Guide to Crop Protection, you’ve probably noticed that it’s BIG! (Sadly, more crop protection products are not the reason why).

The extra 100+ pages of the Guide are largely due to the new single column format with larger font (Figure 1). These changes were made to improve the readability of the Guide.

Other changes to the 2017 Guide include:

  • Placement of the Pesticide Index, which you can now find at the back of the book.
  • Information on maximum residue limits (MRLs) on page 6. Crop protection products flagged by the Keeping It Clean initiate also have a statement on the product pages in the Guide.
  • The herbicide site of action table on page 44 now also separates active ingredients and products by their chemical family to assist with herbicide resistance management.

The Guide to Crop Protection can be purchased for $10.00 at Manitoba Agriculture offices. A pdf version of the Guide is available at: www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/guides-and-publications/#gfcp

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What’s Wrong with My Spruce Trees?!?

Spruce is a common grown shelterbelt tree in Manitoba. They prefer acid soils, that are coarse textured with good drainage, have adequate water and sheltered from extreme weather conditions.  If conditions are not ideal, the trees will begin to decline and become more susceptible to pests.  If your trees are declining and you are considering using a fungicide/insecticide, read the label carefully to make sure the product is registered for use on the trees species and to control the pest identified. Spruce problems can be divided into three categories – Physiological, Disease and Insect.

Physiological

Winter burn or evergreen browning – caused by excessive water loss from the needles. In late winter/early spring, they take on a reddish brown appearance toward their branch tips and/or on one side of the tree.  The south and southwest side may be worse due to more exposure to sun at potentially wind. If conditions are highly favorable for winter burn, buds can also lose moisture and be killed.

Natural Needle Drop – late August or early September, coniferous trees will naturally shed their older needles (usually needles which are 3 or 4 years old or older). During this process, the innermost needles will turn to yellow or brown and drop off. Although this process takes place every year, in some years it becomes more pronounced due to environmental factors. Needle loss can appear to be very dramatic and is often mistaken for a disease or insect problem. Nothing can be done to prevent natural death of needles since they do have a finite life span. Good maintenance can minimize environmental stress.

Competition Stress – if spruce are planted too close to each other, trees can suffer from competition stress. This occurs when the feeder roots from two or more trees take available water and nutrients from the same soil area resulting in slightly stronger trees taking most, while the weaker trees, deprived of water and nutrients, grow poorly and may decline and die. If the branches of two trees are in contact or intertwining, competition stress could be occurring.

Disease

Branch Canker – characterized by browning and death of entire branches. Individual diseased branches can occur anywhere on the tree, although the disease may start on lower branches and move upward. White or grayish crusty or resinous patches appear at the canker site and can also occur on the trunk. Pitch may ooze from these cankers and drip onto lower branches. During wet weather, some cankers can produce spores that disseminate to cause new infections. Pruning out areas affected is the only means of control once the disease has been initiated. Prune when the weather is dry, with pruning tools sterilized between cuts with alcohol (isopropyl alcohol), or a household disinfectant such as Pinesol or Lysol and all diseased material should be removed or destroyed.

Needle Cast – characterised by irregular tan, yellow, red-orange, reddish brown or black spots, specks or bands being produced on the needles from previous seasons of growth. The fungi can infect the new growth from the current season, but do not usually show symptoms on those needles until the following season. Affected needles generally drop early. Twigs of infected trees may appear stunted and may dieback. To prevent spreading, the new needles should be protected by applying a copper fungicide containing copper oxychloride just as growth begins in spring. Repeat applications 3 or 4 times at 10 day intervals. If the planting is not too large, it would be helpful to rake up and remove fallen needles from under the trees to remove them as a source of reinfection. There are currently no fungicides available for home use but fungicides with commercial or agricultural registration are available. Consult with an arborist or tree care service for fungicide options.

Insects

Spider Mites – all evergreen trees have a resident population, but during hot dry spells populations can explode. Visual symptoms start as dingy yellow or dusty needles and progress to brown and dry, then needles drop. There may also be a fine webbing, between the needles. In severe or prolonged infestations, dust particles, shed needles and dead mites catch in the webbing giving the tree an unhealthy appearance. Damage to the tree is caused by both adults and nymphs sucking sap from the needles. Mites can be controlled by using any insecticide listing mites and spruce on the label, at a rate recommended on the label. Dormant oil sprays can also be used to control spider mites. See directions for use on the labels.

Spruce Needle Miner – webbing is produced and may contain dead needles and frass (droppings). Damage is done after tiny larvae hatch from eggs that have been laid along the sides of a needle and begin to chew a hole at the base of it. The insects feed on the needles and exit from the same hole in search of new needles. Full-grown larvae are green with a brown head and are about 6 mm long. The larvae remain active until October when they construct a cocoon inside a nest of dead needles and frass to overwinter.  Adults emerge as small greyish brown moths that have a 12 mm wingspan. If a tree has a large number of needle miner nests it can appear quite unsightly, as airborne material such as dust and poplar cotton become easily caught in them. Heavy infestations can severely weaken the tree through loss of needles. Before bud break in spring, the nests can be washed away with a strong stream of water from a garden hose. The debris should then be gathered and destroyed. This may help to reduce the current year’s infestation.

White Pine Needle Scale  evident by tiny white flecks on the needles that resemble spots of paint. Each white scale contains a dead body of a female scale insect and her overwintering eggs.  During the summer the crawlers moult to become adults after which they begin to secrete a white scale covering. Scale insect feeding damage causes large yellow areas on the needles that can coalesce if the population density becomes excessively high. Sustained heavy attack for 2 or more years can cause trees to lose most of their needles. Insecticides or dormant oil sprays listing spruce and scale insects on the label can be used for control. Follow label directions.

White Pine Weevils – weevils kill the top 2-3 years growth of their host trees. Damage very conspicuous, causing the terminal leader (very top of the tree) to wilt and take on a crook shape, turn brown and die. Located below the damaged area, there can be found small exit holes made by the emerging adult weevils. Adult weevils overwinter in the litter on the ground. There are no insecticides registered for control. Prune and burn infested leaders before mid-July to remove and kill the insects. Cut back all but one live lateral (side) shoot by at least half their lengths to maintain single-stem dominance. Avoid planting the highly susceptible Colorado blue spruce in areas where white pine weevils have previously caused damage.

Spruce Bud Scale heavy infestations can result in twig and branch dieback. The presence of sooty mold on twigs, needles and branches may be the first clue to the presence of the insect. The sooty mold does not cause any damage to the tree but is unsightly and since it is highly visible is often mistaken for the cause of needle and twig dieback if these are occurring in association with the scale infestation.  The female adult scales cluster along the stems of twigs. They closely resemble the buds of the spruce tree, lower branches on the trees are often the most heavily infested. Heavy scale infestations result in discoloration and loss of needles, twig dieback, dieback of lower branches and reduced tree vigour and growth. Infested trees are also reported to be more susceptible to winter injury. Any insecticide listing spruce and scale insects on the label can be applied to reduce damage from this insect. Follow label directions. Insecticides should be applied while the crawlers are still active.

 

 

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Spring Cleaning – Include Disposal of Old Malathion!

If malathion is in your shed, it may be time to revisit your inventory. According to a recent advisory issued by Health Canada (http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/recall-alert-rappel-avis/hc-sc/2017/63150a-eng.php), Malathion products purchased prior to June 2016 should not be used. This advisory applies to all products including agricultural and mosquito control products containing malathion. The advisory was issued because over an extended period of time, malathion can convert into a toxic metabolite called isomalathion. This conversion can be faster if label directions for storage are not followed properly. If you are purchasing malathion products in 2017, be sure to check expiry date on the packaging.

What to do with old/obsolete inventory of malathion products?

  1. Malathion products older than one year cannot be used and will need to be disposed.
  2. If agricultural malathion products purchased prior to June 2016 are being used, users must test the product prior to use. Malathion products must be tested at an accredited laboratory and meet the requirements outlined in Health Canada Advisory. Products over a year in storage must be disposed.
  3. For more information on disposal of old/obsolete products, https://www.gov.mb.ca/sd/eal/pesticide/info_pestwaste.pdf

Steps to consider for safe use of pesticide products

  1. Before using any product, including malathion products, confirm the registration status and class of the pesticide product on Pest Management Regulatory Agency’s (PMRA) website or mobile application.
  2. Most restricted class pesticides require a license for purchase and use. Appropriate license must be secured before using a restricted pesticide product. Farmer exemption does not apply for restricted pesticide products.
  3. Verify that the label recommended storage conditions are met.
  4. Follow directions on a pesticide product label.
  5. Obsolete products and empty containers must be disposed properly

Additional questions can be directed to Health Canada (613) 957-2991, 1866-225-0709

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How Can I Reduce Fertilizer Losses in Dry Spring Soils?

Dry spring weather is great for seeding but may play havoc with some fertilizer applications and losses.

1.Seedplaced fertilizer – Where seedbed moisture is low or when weather is hot and windy, reduce the rates of seedplaced nitrogen  by approximately 50 per cent. Table 7 of the Manitoba Soil Fertility Guide  http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/soil-fertility/soil-fertility-guide/nitrogen.html indicates safe rates of seedplaced urea under different soil texture, moisture and seedbed utilization conditions.  But as conditions dry, these rates should be reduced accordingly.

2.Surface applied urea or urea-forms (like UAN solution 28-0-0) – are vulnerable to volatilization losses.  The soil and environmental factors increasing risk of loss are well known and include:moist soil conditions, followed by rapid drying

  • high wind velocity
  • warm soil temperatures
  • high soil pH (> pH 7.5)
  • high lime content in surface soil
  • coarse soil texture (sandy)
  • low organic matter content
  • high amount of surface residue (Zero Till)

Volatilization losses can be reduced with dribble placement of UAN versus broadcast applications and the use of an urease inhibitor.  The active ingredient NBPT used in Agrotain Ultra is now marketed by a number of companies.  To expect the same level of protection as Agrotain Ultra, ensure the application rate is similar, since formulation strength and recommended rates differ among suppliers.  Agrotain Ultra contains 27% NBPT with an application rate of 3.1 l/tonne urea or 1.6 l/tonne UAN.

3. Last year the lack of rainfall through much of May left surface applied nitrogen stranded at the surface.  If possible, a portion of the crops nitrogen for cereals and canola should be in-soil placed.  In season applications should be targeted prior to stem elongation of cereals and bolting of canola.

 

 

 

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Manitoba Crop Report #2 – May 8, 2017

Warm, dry and windy weather have prevailed across much on the province, allowing for field accessibility for field work and seeding. It is estimated 20-25% of seeding is complete, with cereal planting most advanced and field peas, canola, corn also being seeded. For to complete report, visit:  http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/crop-report-archive/crop-report-2017-05-08.html

Manitoba Ag Weather Network

Manitoba Agriculture has a number of weather stations across the province that measure air/soil temperature, soil moisture, wind direction and speed.  For local information please visit

Central/East/Interlake Regions: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/current-conditions-summary1.html

Southwest/Northwest Regions: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/current-conditions-summary2.html

Previous Day on Highs/Lows and Average Soil Temperature at:

Central/Easter/Interlake:http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/yesterdays-summary1.html  Southwest/Northwest: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/yesterdays-summary2.html

Another useful application of the data gathered by the network for rainfall can be found at Rain Watch http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/weather/rain-watch.html

 

 

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Seeding for Target Plant Stands, not lbs/ac

Seed can be an expensive input, but a poor crop stand can be lost profit.  To maximize your seed, still get the stand needed to optimize yield, start calculating the real seeding rate needed for the plant stand desired and not gauging seeding rate by lbs/ac or bu/ac.

The following are the standard recommendations for FINAL plant stand, not what you are putting in the ground. Germination, TKW and mortality are very important to use in the equation to determine actual seeds/ac to plant.  For example, if you assume your germination is 96% and its only 85% and conditions turn cold and wet (increasing mortality), you may have a lot thinner stand than you anticipated (which could mean a harder time controlling weeds).

                    Grain Crops                               Oilseed Crops                   Pulse Crops        
Barley Wheat Oat Corn Canola Sunflower Flax Peas Soybean Dry Bean*
Plants/ft2 22-25 23-28 18-23 7-14 37-56 7-9
 Plants/ac (1000s) 26-30 18-22 180-210 85-100
Mortality Rates (%) 10-15 10-15 10-15 10-15 20-60 10 40-50 5-15 5-10 5-10

*Navy Bean = pinto beans on lower end and navy bean require higher plant stands

Source:  Manitoba Agriculture, Canola Council of Canada, Flax Council of Canada, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs

 Seeding Rate (lbs/ac) = target plant stand/ft2 x TKW (g) / % expected seed survival x 10                       

 e.g. FLAX Seeding Rate= 45 plants/ft2 x  5g (TKW) / ((88% germination x (1- 40% mortality)) X 10 = 43 lbs/ac

Other information

Wheat – http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/production/print,aiming-for-higher-wheat-yields.html

Using 1000 Kernel Weight for Calculating Seeding Rates – http://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/%24department/deptdocs.nsf/all/agdex81

Canola – http://www.canolacouncil.org/canola-encyclopedia/crop-establishment/seeding-rate/

Optimizing Plant Establishment – http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/production/pubs/optimizing-stand-establishment-in-less-than-optimal-conditions.pdf

 

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