With the extreme temperatures in the past week, harvested canola is coming off hot, hot, HOT! Reports of canola measuring in the mid to high 30s are common, as well as the canola being dry at 8% and very dry <6%.
Canola in the above situation, even though moisture is low, needs to be conditioned as soon as it is in the bin. Conditioning the seed, by turning on aeration fans will help move cooler air through the seeds, cooling in down. If grain if left hot and unattended at temperatures over 15C, there is a greater risk of spoilage. Using air movement will also help dry out any green weed material in the harvested seed, which will again help reduce spoilage in the canola, from the moisture in the weeds increasing moisture in pockets in your bin.
If you do not have aeration in your bin, leave the bin hatches on the top of the bin propped open, so hot air can escape. Close the hatches if it starts raining though. Also consider taking a truck load of canola out of the bin from the bottom and then auger back into the bin through the top hatch. This can ‘turn’ the grain and the act of augering will introduce cooler air into the canola and help cool it down.
In all situations, monitor the temperature and moisture of the canola in the bins closely. Canola keeps longer term if it is cooler than 15C and less than 8% moisture.
Map shows positive clubroot findings by Rural Municipality, discovered through laboratory testing for presence of clubroot spores in soil and/or positive confirmation of clubroot symptomatic plants. Testing was done from 2009-2014 and is still considered limited. Positive findings have been at low spore concentrations and sporadic throughout the province. As more fields are sampled, the map will be updated.
As less than 5% of farms in Manitoba have been tested, it is recommended that all fields be tested to determine if clubroot spores are present, regardless of RM classification. To date, clubroot has been confirmed in 48 Manitoba fields.
Clubroot is a soil-borne pest that can move from field to field on both agricultural and non-agricultural equipment. Specific biosecurity activities to minimize the spread of clubroot will differ by the known levels of clubroot DNA found within the field. MAFRD has a series of suggestions for all industries operating on agricultural land to minimize the potential of spread on the Crop Biosecurity page.
Producers who participate in AgriInsurance provides seeding date information to Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC). This dataset provides us a historical perspective of when seeding has taken place in the past. Seeding date data information is broken down into a week:month format, i.e. 1:05 is Week 1 in the 5th Month (May). So 2:05 is Week 2 in May, and so on.
Each week is then categorized dependent on the day of the week in which the month starts. So if Week 1 starts on a Sunday, there will be 7 days of seeding captured in Week 1. However, if Week 1 starts on Friday (like we have in 2015), there are 9 days captured in Week 1. Confused yet? Essentially, each year will have a different number of days captured in each weekly timeframe, varying from 5 days up to 12 days. However, the data still provides good reference points to seeding progress in Manitoba.
In Table 1, cumulative seeding progress to the end of Week 1 in May for six crop types is provided. The last five year (2009-2013) average cumulative seeding progress is noted, along with what was seeded in the same timeframe in 2014. Please note that data is for final insured crop in the ground.
Table 1: Seeding progress (%) in Manitoba by end of Week 1 in May (1:05).
Based on the May 11th Manitoba Crop Report, overall seeding progress is estimated at 55% complete. There isn’t a provincial breakdown provided of seeding progress by crop type, but in looking at each region, seeding of spring cereals is ahead of the 5-year average of 2009-2013, and well ahead of 2014!
Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, MAFRD
Submitted by Anastasia Kubinec, Manitoba Agriculture, Oilseeds Crop Specialist
Originally posted May 8th and 30th, 2015…..re-post May 13, 2016.
Don’t assume because there is frost (or snow) on the ground, that your emerging crop in dead!
With the drop in temperatures in the past couple of days, there are a few things to keep in mind if the mercury dips below 0°C. The temperature is the instigator for causing frost, but whether it is -0.1°C or -4°C the damage inflicted is highly influenced on these other factors:
Short frost = < 2 hours, may not cause much damage if frost is light (above -1 to -2°C), crop type and staging is tolerant, conditions wet and crop has become acclimatized.
Short frost = < 2 hours, but hard frost (lower than -2°C), crops like canola are more sensitive to longer frost vs. cereals, damage can be variable in field and across area.
Long frost = > 2 hours, whether frost is light or hard the longer the negative temperatures the more time for damage to happen. Tolerance by crop type varies.
Other Environmental Conditions
Cloudy and wet – prior to a frost, cool temperatures slow plant growth and ‘hardens’ plants off, which will help them tolerate a frost. Also wet soil helps buffer the cold air effects on the plants, as wet soils change temperature slower than dry soils.
Sunny and dry – The combination of a dramatic drop in air temperatures when plants are actively growing then a brilliant sunny day after the frost event is where we have seen the most damage. Scouting after the frost (24 and 48 hours) is very important though to assess extent and percentage of field injury.
Field trash cover – increased trash in fields was seen to increase frost damage on very susceptible crops in the 2009 June frost
Spring Cereals – more tolerant than other crops types, can tolerant to temperatures as low as -6°C as growing point below ground until the 5 leaf stage.
Winter Wheat – can withstand very low temperatures for a short period of time (-11°C for less than 2 hours) up until the tillering stage.
Corn – smaller then V5, will recover from light frost as growing point below ground. Leaves probably will be killed, but plants will recover if the growing point ok.
Oilseeds – environmental conditions impact frost severity on susceptible canola and flax cotyledons. Resiliency increases at the 3-4 leaf stage (canola) or 2nd whorl (flax). Sunflowers are fairly tolerant up to the V4 stage.
Pulses – peas are most tolerant, then soybean, edibles bean are very susceptible even before emergence. Field pea crops are rarely lost to frost. Soybean are more sensitive, but the smaller the soybean plant the more tolerant they are – from emergence to cotyledon can withstand short light frosts.
Scouting After a Frost
Scouting should start 24 – 48 hours after the frost and continue for the 5 days following the frost event. Look for leaves wilting, looking “water-soaked” or see “frost banding”. Watch for new growth in the plant. You do not want to see plants wilted and not perking back up or pinching off on the stem near the growing point (canola, flax, soybeans). Also assess the area affected by frost, small areas or a few plants damaged are ok, as other plants emerged (or just emerging) will fill in those spaces. Large dead areas may need to be re-seeded.
If in doubt of what look for, call your local agronomists, local FPE Specialist with Manitoba Agriculture or the Crop Industry Branch.
For more specific details on what actually occurs to plants with a frost and crop specific details and symptoms to look for (and how long after a frost to do assessment) see Manitoba Agriculture’s Spring Frost Damage Bulletin.
Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (MAFRD) has identified Verticillium wilt (Verticillium longisporum) in canola(Brassica napus) in Manitoba. This is the first time this disease has been detected in Canada.
Symptoms of Verticillium wilt in canola as plant fully ripens (photo courtesy of MAFRD)
The disease was visually identified by the MAFRD Crop Diagnostic Centre on a canola sample submitted because patches of wilted canola were observed in a field. The pathogen culture was sent to the National Fungal Identification Service in Ottawa for molecular identification, which confirmed it as Verticillium longisporum. MAFRD is working with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) to implement biosecurity risk mitigation measures where this pest was detected. The CFIA will conduct further surveying in spring 2015 to determine the spread of the pathogen.
For more information on:
Facts about Verticillium Wilt in Canola
Management of Verticillium Wilt in Canola
Symptoms of Verticillium Wilt in Canola at Harvest
Canola is one of the most economically important crops produced in Manitoba and yield robbers such as canola diseases need to be identified in order to apply best management practices. For many years, sclerotinia has been the most significant canola disease in Manitoba. However, in recent years the prevalence (% of fields infested) and incidence (% plants infected per field) of blackleg have been increasing.
Disease incidence and severity will change from year to year based on use of genetic resistance in varieties, environmental conditions, and agronomic practices such as crop rotation and fungicide use. Annual surveys of commercial canola crops provide valuable information on the distribution of disease, impact of farming practices on severity and incidence, help agronomists and farmer prioritize where future resources need to be directed, and can provide an early-warning system that provides information on the occurrence of disease/pesticide breakdown.
For more information on the annual Manitoba canola disease survey including methods, results from 2009 to 2014, and further discussion, please view the attached poster which was presented at the 2014 Manitoba Agronomists Conference:
Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC) has released an early version of the 2014 yield report with 99.8% of the Harvest Production Reports (HPRs) keyed in. The table below summarizes the 2014 average yield by crop type based on the harvested acres, as well as comparisons to 2013 and a 5-year average (2009 to 2013).
In February 2015, MASC will release their annual Yield Manitoba publication and update their Manitoba Management Plus Program (MMPP) website (http://www.mmpp.com/mmpp.nsf/mmpp_index.html) where further information on yields and acres by variety will be released. Additionally, the data will be more complete in February as all HPR’s will be keyed in.
Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Anastasia Kubinec & Dennis Lange, Crop Specialist with MAFRD
Special Thanks to Doug Wilcox, MASC, for providing the 2014 data!
The website allows you to either print or view the entire 2014 report and makes reports from past year available through an archive.
There is also a variety comparison tool available on the website that allows you to sort data to more accurately compare varieties. This tool allows you to sort data by province or specific site, year, herbicide system, research design (small plot, field scale or both) and growing season zone (short, mid, long).
Submitted by: Terry Buss, Farm Production Advisor – Crops, MAFRD
Pest Surveillance Initiative (PSI) lab is a project of the Manitoba Canola Growers Association (MCGA) and Manitoba, Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (MAFRD). The PSI lab provides Manitoba growers with the ability to test soil for low levels of clubroot DNA. Although more than 250 township-range combinations have been collected through the Manitoba Canola Disease Survey (2009-2014), an additional 650 samples are needed provide coverage of all the agricultural areas of Manitoba. With funding from the Growing Forward 2, Growing Actions program, PSI is working to complete a map to outline the current incidence of clubroot within Manitoba on a township-range basis.
PSI is looking for canola fields from all township-ranges in agro-Manitoba to be sampled for low level presence of clubroot DNA. If you are interested in having your canola fields sampled for this project, please contact Mavis McPhail at [email protected]. When sending your email please provide the legal land descriptions that had canola in 2014, so we can cross-reference to the township-ranges already sampled. Only fields in township-range combinations not previously sampled will be sampled through this project.
PSI will send a trained pathologist to sample selected fields free of charge and have that sample analyzed for presence and concentration of clubroot spores in the soil. Growers will receive the results from their fields directly from PSI. All individual grower information and specific section coordinates will remain confidential, but the township-range level will be used to generate a map showing the presence/absence of clubroot. This map will be updated regularly as additional samples are analyzed.
Submitted by Holly Derksen, MAFRD Field Crop Pathologist
There have been a number of reports of ripe canola looking black or, in some cases, sooty. Upon closer examination, it looks as if a black mould is growing on senescing plants.
The good news, this sooty growth is caused by saprophytic fungi that only infect tissue that is already dead or dying – these are not pathogenic fungi, although they can be closely related to them. The bad news, in the fields we have been called to, the saprophytic fungi are growing on plants that are senescing earlier than other plants in the field due to the presence of disease, most notably blackleg.
So, although the black “mould” on the plants isn’t the issue itself, it can lead you into the field where you could discover an underlying problem. Once again, we recommend jumping off the swather with a pair of clippers, pulling up plants, and clipping them at the base of the stem to look for discolouration in the cross-section. You can’t do anything about the blackleg in this year’s crop, but the knowledge of its presence can help you with future management decisions. Rotation rotation rotation!!