2016 Manitoba Fusarium Head Blight Survey

The following are the results of spring and winter wheat fields surveyed for Fusarium head blight (FHB) by Manitoba Agriculture Staff. Fusarium head blight was observed in nearly every field surveyed (97% of winter wheat fields surveyed and 93% of spring wheat fields surveyed). The average FHB index for winter wheat in 2016 was 2.7% which was slightly below the 10-year-average (3.1%). The average FHB index for spring wheat in 2016 was 2.4% which was slightly above the 10-year-average (2.2%).

Winter wheat:

FHB was observed in 30/31 fields surveyed.

Region # Fields Surveyed Average Incidence Average Severity Average FHB Index
Central 13 18% 19% 3.6%
Eastern/Interlake 13 11% 16% 2.6%
Southwest 5 6% 11% 0.6%
MANITOBA 31 13% 16% 2.7%

*No winter wheat fields in the Northwest region were surveyed

Spring wheat:

FHB was observed in 50/54 fields surveyed.

Region # Fields Surveyed Average Incidence Average Severity Average FHB Index
Central 17 29% 12% 3.9%
Eastern/Interlake 17 8% 11% 1.1%
Northwest 10 7% 8% 0.7%
Southwest 10 23% 19% 3.9%
MANITOBA 54 17% 12% 2.4%

 

Submitted by Holly Derksen, Field Crop Pathologist, Manitoba Agriculture

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

Disease Survey Time is Approaching Quickly!

Every year disease surveys occur, not only Manitoba, but across Canada and other countries around the world.  So why conduct these surveys?  Disease surveys are an important component of integrated disease management plans.  The surveys can give an indication of potential problems if disease levels are high, if there are changes in pathogen types or races occurring, supply information that can be used in the future for monitoring and control measures, and provide historical information on the occurrence and severity of disease in Manitoba and the assessment of losses from disease.

The CANADIAN PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOCIETY (CPS) publishes their annual CANADIAN PLANT DISEASE SURVEY, available on the website at http://phytopath.ca/publication/cpds/. It is a periodical of information and record on the occurrence and severity of plant diseases in Canada and the estimated losses from diseases. For Manitoba, historical information is provided for various diseases and crop types, such as in cereals Fusarium Head Blight, smut, stem rust, leaf rust, stripe rust, crown rust, and in canola sclerotinia stem rot, blackleg, aster yellows and clubroot.  Information for other crop types are also available, including field beans, flax, peas, soybeans, corn and sunflowers.

Biosecurity.  Surveys also play a role in crop biosecurity and plant health. An important part of minimizing or preventing the spread of pests is early detection through timely scouting, monitoring, assessment and decision-making.  A strong information network that is often created through surveys and its reporting provides for resources in assessing new problems and alerting others about potential risks.

So if you are a producer and someone asks if they can include your field in an annual disease survey, consider saying yes!

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Manitoba Agriculture website: www.manitoba.ca/agriculture
Manitoba Agriculture on Twitter: @MBGovAg
Manitoba Agriculture on YouTube: www.youtube.com/ManitobaAgriculture

 

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

Scout Your Oat Fields for Crown Rust

During the growing season, reports on the current rust situation and how it is progressing in the United States are available in the Cereal Rust Bulletins from the USDA at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Main/docs.htm?docid=9757. Recently, crown rust has been reported in South Dakota and Minnesota.  These reports provide growers in Manitoba the opportunity to proactively scout for crown rust in their oat fields.

As a reminder, there have been changes within the crown rust pathogen populations in Manitoba where virulence has developed on a number of oat varieties. Varieties that contain the Pc91 gene, including AAC Justice, CDC Morrison, HiFi, Souris and Stainless, had been redefined for crown rust resistance in Seed Manitoba 2016 (www.seedmb.ca). The variety Summit, which is postulated to carry different resistance genes, is also losing its resistance to virulent races in the Eastern Prairies; therefore, it had also been redefined for crown rust resistance.

There are a number of steps used to determined if changes are occurring within the crown rust pathogen populations, and then whether changes in variety disease resistance ratings are required. Please take the time to read the attached article to learn more about how and why the crown rust resistance ratings did change in Seed Manitoba 2016.

Changes in Crown Rust Pathogen Populations Changes in Disease Resistance Ratings for Oats

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

With information from Dr. Jim Menzies, Phytopathologist, AAFC Morden & Dr. Jennifer Mitchell-Fetch, Oat Breeder, AAFC Brandon

 

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

Crop Biosecurity and the Roles We Play

Submitted by Anastasia Kubinec, MAFRD Oilseed Crop Specialist
Reduction of pest movement in crops, is good business for everyone involved.  Though producers are responsible for their operations, others working on agricultural lands have also have the responsibility to reduce pest movement, introduction or increase of pest populations (ex: weed, insect, disease, nematode, etc.), as these all can have long-term negative effects on farm productivity.
  • Assess risks associated with your operation for pest introduction and movement around farm.
  • Develop protocols to reduce the potential of pest introduction and spread between fields and properties.
  • Implement protocols and management practices in your operation.
  • Communicate with other groups working on your property about your protocols and expectations.

For Agricultural Retail, Custom Equipment Operators and Service Provider Industries

  • Develop and implement protocols that pertain to the activities and services you conduct on producers fields.
    • equipment cleaning between fields
    • avoid equipment traffic on fields during wet conditions
    • increased communication with clients on their expectations
  • Communicate and educate clients and industry about biosecurity and the threat that pest movement represents to Manitoba crop production.

For Energy, Construction, Water Management, Transportation Industry and Municipal Work on Agricultural Land

  • Develop and implement protocols to prevent pest movement and establishment to other fields and properties.  Protocols could include:
    • equipment cleaning between fields
    • avoid equipment traffic on fields during wet conditions
    • increased communication with clients on their expectations
  • Communicate and educate clients and industry about biosecurity and the threat that pest movement represents to Manitoba crop production.

For Private and Public Agronomists

  • Conduct field surveys for crop pests, publically reporting on current pest levels and the discovery of new pest.
  • Provide consultation, extension information and training on how to identify and control pests.
  • Educate the agriculture industry, oil industry and general public about biosecurity and the threat of pest introduction, multiplication and movement .
  • Educate agricultural retail industry, environmental companies, tile drainage/water management, custom applicators, petroleum, construction and transportation industries, and landscaping companies about equipment sanitation requirements and pest spread within and between fields and municipalities.

For Agricultural Researchers

  • Assess the risks associated with your activities for pest introduction and movement between fields where research is occurring.
  • Develop protocols to reduce the potential of pest introduction and spread between fields and properties
    • cleaning equipment between fields
    • training on non-target pest identification
  • Communicate with the producer cooperator or field station manager about their biosecurity expectations, discussing the management activities to be implemented.
    • Discuss protocols with staff so they understand the expectations.
  • Provide consultation, extension and training on pest identification and management with researchers, other government bodies, industry and producers.
Respond
Have a follow-up question?

AAFC and MAFRD Invest in New Canola Research Lab Focused on Plant Pest Surveillance

The Canada and Manitoba governments have provided $250,000 in research funding and $969,000 for equipment to help identify and address problems caused by canola diseases and pests, Federal Agriculture Minister Gerry Ritz and Manitoba Agriculture, Food and Rural Development Minister Ron Kostyshyn announced today.

“The canola industry is an important economic driver, and our government is working to ensure farmers and producers have the tools they need to grow their business,” said Minister Ritz. “This investment will support research into disease prevention and resistance in canola, helping the sector remain profitable and sustainable.”

SEE FULL NEWS RELEASE at http://news.gov.mb.ca/news/index.html?archive=&item=33874

 

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

Over the Course of Time: Manitoba Canola Diseases 2009-2014

Canola is one of the most economically important crops produced in Manitoba and yield robbers such as canola diseases need to be identified in order to apply best management practices. For many years, sclerotinia has been the most significant canola disease in Manitoba. However, in recent years the prevalence (% of fields infested) and incidence (% plants infected per field) of blackleg have been increasing.

Disease incidence and severity will change from year to year based on use of genetic resistance in varieties, environmental conditions, and agronomic practices such as crop rotation and fungicide use. Annual surveys of commercial canola crops provide valuable information on the distribution of disease, impact of farming practices on severity and incidence, help agronomists and farmer prioritize where future resources need to be directed, and can provide an early-warning system that provides information on the occurrence of disease/pesticide breakdown.

For more information on the annual Manitoba canola disease survey including methods, results from 2009 to 2014, and further discussion, please view the attached poster which was presented at the 2014 Manitoba Agronomists Conference:

Over the Course of Time Manitoba Canola Diseases 2009_2014 (Kubinec et al., 2014)

For more information on canola diseases in Manitoba, and information on various types of control methods, please visit MAFRD’s website at http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/plant-diseases/index.html
Respond
Have a follow-up question?
,

Goss’s Wilt in Corn: 2014 Manitoba Disease Survey

Goss’s Wilt of corn is caused by the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, and has been present in Manitoba since it was originally identified near Roland in 2009.

In 2014, 74 corn fields were surveyed across the major grain corn growing areas of the province. The disease was detected in 14% of the fields randomly surveyed.  Goss’s Wilt was detected in the rural municipalities (RM) of Roland, Thompson, Dufferin, Montcalm, Morris and Portage la Prairie.  In addition, the disease was observed in the RM’s of Stanley and Rhineland, although not in the fields that were part of the survey. In past years, Goss’s Wilt has also been detected in the RM of Hanover.

Figure 1: Goss’s Wilt provincial survey results where red crosses indicate fields where disease was found and green dots indicate fields where disease was not detected.

Goss's Wilt survey map

Results indicate that Goss’s Wilt has spread to most of the grain corn growing areas of Manitoba, and therefore, is something  that must be scouted for and managed by all growers.

For more information on disease symptoms of Goss’s Wilt, life cycle of the disease, management options and complete methodology and results of the 2014 survey, please view the attached poster which was presented at the 2014 Manitoba Agronomists Conference:

Goss’s Wilt in Corn: 2014 Manitoba Disease Survey (Holly Derksen, MAFRD & Morgan Cott, MCGA)

Submitted by: Holly Derksen, Field Crops Pathologist, MAFRD

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

Results of the 2014 FHB Spring Wheat Field Survey

Forty-seven spring wheat fields in Manitoba were surveyed by MAFRD staff to visually assess the incidence and severity of fusarium head blight (FHB).  Fusarium head blight in each field was assessed by sampling 100 plants when most crops were at the growth stage of ZGS 73 – 85. In each field, the percentage of infected spikes (disease incidence) and the mean spike proportion infected (SPI) were determined. The FHB Index (overall severity) was calculated as (% incidence x % SPI / 100).

RESULTS:

Symptoms of FHB were observed in 35 out of the 47 fields. The average % disease incidence was 5.9% (range 0 – 28.0%), SPI was 16.8% (range 0 – 55.0%) and the resulting average FHB Index was 1.0% (range 0 – 7.4%). Table 1 further illustrates the average FHB Index in the four regions of Central, Eastern/Interlake, Southwest and Northwest, and the number of fields surveyed per region.

2014 FHB Index in Spring Wheat by Agricultural Region

The 2014 FHB Index of 1.0% was lower than the 10-year (2003-2012) average of 2.9% (see Table 2) and similar to the previous few years. No survey was conducted in 2013 but levels were considered low.

Average FHB Index in Manitoba Spring Wheat (2003-2012)

Although favourable conditions for inoculum development and infection of the winter wheat crop existed in 2014, a transition to warmer, drier weather conditions when spring wheat was at anthesis, combined with foliar fungicide application in majority of fields surveyed (83%), likely contributed to the reduced FHB severity and little to no yield or quality loss in spring wheat.

Samples of infected heads were also collected and sent to AAFC Morden for further analysis of Fusarium species responsible for infection.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist

MAFRD Staff who conducted surveys: Ingrid Kristjanson, Dennis Lange, Earl Bargen, Derek Chomokovski, Rejean Picard, Amir Farooq, Lionel Kaskiw, Elmer Kaskiw, Marnie McCracken, Stephanie Jersak & Pam de Rocquigny.

A special THANK YOU to those producers who allow MAFRD to survey their winter wheat fields!

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

Results of the 2014 FHB Winter Wheat Field Survey

Thirty-nine winter wheat fields in Manitoba were surveyed by MAFRD staff to visually assess the incidence and severity of fusarium head blight (FHB).

Fusarium head blight in each field was assessed by non-destructive sampling of 100 plants when most crops were at the growth stage of ZGS 73 – 85. In each field, the percentage of infected spikes (disease incidence) and the mean spike proportion infected (SPI) were determined. The FHB Index (overall severity) was calculated as (% incidence x % SPI / 100).

RESULTS:

Symptoms of FHB were observed in all 39 fields. The average % disease incidence was 32.9% (range 1.0 – 92.0%), SPI was 33.8% (range 9.1 – 93.1%) and the resulting average FHB Index was 11.6% (range 0.1 – 47.6%). Table 1 further illustrates the average FHB Index in the three regions of Central, Eastern/Interlake and Southwest, and the number of fields surveyed per region.

2014 FHB Index by Agricultural Region

The 2014 FHB Index of 11.6% was higher than the 10-year (2004-2013) average of 3.4% (see Table 2), and the third highest in the same time period.

Average FHB Index Rating 10 years

High levels of FHB symptoms were measured in 2014 due to a number of factors, including favourable conditions for inoculum development and subsequent infection of the crop, variable crop staging resulting in difficulty timing a fungicide application for suppression of FHB, and the large number of acres grown to varieties that are rated susceptible (S) to FHB.

Samples of infected heads were also collected and sent to AAFC for further analysis of Fusarium species responsible for infection.  Results will be available in the fall/early winter.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist

MAFRD Staff who conducted surveys: Ingrid Kristjanson, Dennis Lange, Earl Bargen, Derek Chomokovski, Rejean Picard, Amir Farooq, Lionel Kaskiw, Elmer Kaskiw, and Pam de Rocquigny.

A special THANK YOU to those producers who allow MAFRD to survey their winter wheat fields!

Respond
Have a follow-up question?
,

Manitoba Disease & Insect Update – August 8th

A Manitoba Insect and Disease Update for the week of August 4-8, 2014 has been posted at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/insect-report-archive/insect-update-2014-08-08.html.

Highlights Include:

  • Scouting for canola diseases has begun. Blackleg, root rots, white mold, aster yellows and alternaria pod blight will be surveyed.
  • Lygus Bugs in canola – The growth stage where canola has the most potential to have yield reduced by Lygus bugs is the early-podding stage.
  • In corn, scouting for Goss’s wilt and leaf blight disease will help growers understand the status in their crop. A few plants are showing common smut, which is not a serious disease.
  • Some have been asking about red mites seen on the wings of grasshoppers.
G

Red mites on grasshoppers.

Submitted by: John Gavloski, Entomologist & Vikram Bisht, Pathologist, MAFRD

 

Respond
Have a follow-up question?