Did my early seeded wheat survive this latest cold snap?

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, MAFRD

In my position, I talk with with numerous agronomists (both public & private) regarding cereal crop production.  Often issues facing Manitoba producers are issues facing producers to the east, west and south of us.

One such instance is Jochum Wiersma, who is the Cereal Specialist with the University of Minnesota, recently wrote an article on what the latest cold snap may have had on the earlier planted cereal crops in his area.  However, the information is truly applicable to conditions facing some acres here in Manitoba. Below is the article, along with the link to his blog post.

Did my earliest seeded wheat, barley, and oats survive this latest cold snap?

by Jochum Wiersma

The latest cold snap may have you wonder whether the earlier planted wheat and barley have a snowball’s chance in hell to produce a healthy seedling and stand?  Wheat, barley and oats do not germinate until the soil temperatures reach 40 F (4.4C).  The germination process starts with the uptake of water, breaking the dormancy and starting the development of the sprout.  Once the dormancy is broken the energy stored in the seed is used for the growth and development as well as respiration (basically maintenance).  If the temperatures are low or even freezing the growth and development of young seedling slows down or even stops.  However, respiration continues albeit at a lower rate and continues to deplete the energy stored in the seed.  This will eventually decrease the vigor of the seed and may prevent the sprouted seed to produce a healthy seedling.

With the freezing temperatures the first concerns is whether this can kill the sprouted seed.  Reports from the literature indicate that sprouted wheat and young seedling will likely survive temperatures in the low twenties (20F = -6.7C).  A quick first check of the color of radicle (first root) and coleoptile (first leaf) is the first step: a white and firm radicle and coleoptile will indicate that the sprout is not damaged by frost after the seed has been allowed to thaw out. A second test to determine viability of seed is to dig up seed and bring it home, place it between moist paper towels, and keep it at room temperature.  If the seed is viable the sprouts should start to grow within 24 hours.

Minnesota Crop News: http://blog-crop-news.extension.umn.edu/

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Warm Soil Means Fast Emergence….So Go Scout!

With most soil temperatures across Manitoba averaging over 10C, and the good soil moisture, crops planted are emerging quickly!

So, great news, but what this means is it is time to get out and start scouting!

Things to look for are:

  1. Emergence, plant stands, patterns in field – this can indicate if seeds planted evenly, but can also you could indicate early issues like cutworms, soil-borne disease and herbicide residue injury.
  2. Weeds species, numbers and size – if you crop is coming up this fast, so are the weeds!  Targetting the weeds when they are small and knowing the species so you can choose the right product and the right will really help with the control.  Make sure those little yield-robbbers don’t get to use the sun, moisture and fertilizer instead of your crop.
  3. Insects – cutworms were mentioned before, but more look more specifically for the damage on the plants if you can’t see the insect, as that can help with identification.  Are leaves clipped off leaves at or above the soil vs. chewed with ‘shot-gun’ hole marks in leaves.  Keep in mind the economic thresholds for control!
  4. Other funny stuff ?  Keep these in mind too when out scouting and mark down spots (or GPS tag) to monitor as the days go on to see how they progress, sometimes it takes a couple of days before things become obvious.  When in doubt give the Crops Knowledge Centre a call at 204-745-5663.

Submitted by: Anastasia Kubinec, Oilseed Crop Specialist, MAFRD Crops Knowledge Centre.

Resources:

MAFRD Guide to Crop Protection: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/guides-and-publications/index.html#gfcp

Weed Identification: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/weeds/

Insect Identification: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/insects/index.html

 

 

 

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