How Much Nitrogen Do I Use to Fertilize my Fall Hybrid Rye?

Submitted by John Heard, Crop Nutrition Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Interest and acreage of fall rye has grown substantially in Manitoba. Hybrid rye has about a 20% yield advantage over traditional open pollinated (OP) varieties and are expanding onto more productive soils than rye’s historic range on the droughty sands.

With increased yield potential comes the question about nitrogen rates to sustain that higher yield. The hybrids are shorter and more lodging tolerant, so one might suspect they can tolerate more nitrogen, and hence respond to more nitrogen. Very few studies have looked at nitrogen rates of the open pollinated versus hybrid varieties. Three Saskatchewan studies provide the extent of the data. From this data we observe the substantial yield increase of the hybrids over the open pollinated variety but that similar rates of nitrogen are required to optimize yield of each.

Read the whole story here (PDF 325KB): hybrid-rye-fertilization-rates

 

Visit our website at www.manitoba.ca/agriculture

Follow us on Twitter: @MBGovAg

View our videos on YouTube: www.youtube.com/ManitobaAgriculture

Subscribe to our newsletter

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

2016 Winter Wheat & Fall Rye MCVET Data Available!

Winter Wheat MCVET 2016Since 2008, MCVET (Manitoba Crop Variety Evaluation Team) has been publishing winter cereal yield data collected from their trials shortly after harvest to help farmers and seed growers in Manitoba make variety decisions.

In 2016, data is being released for 10 locations for 7 winter wheat varieties and 5 fall rye varieties: Fresh off the Field – 2016 MCVET Winter Cereal Yield Data

 

 

 

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Manitoba Agriculture on Twitter: @MBGovAg
Manitoba Agriculture on YouTube: www.youtube.com/ManitobaAgriculture
Manitoba Agriculture website: www.manitoba.ca/agriculture

 

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

Provincial 5-Year Average Yields for Cereal Crops in Manitoba

As Harvest 2016 progresses, there is always the question “How will this year’s yields compare to what producers typically see, i.e. average yields?”

If we use yield data reported by producers to Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC)  over the last 5-year period (2011 to 2015), average cereal crop yields are as follows:

  • red spring wheat – 51 bushels per acre
  • feed wheat – 68 bushels per acre
  • CPS wheat – 48 bushels per acre
  • barley – 64 bushels per acre
  • oats – 91 bushels per acre
  • winter wheat – 63 bushels per acre
  • fall rye – 44 bushels per acre

Note: varieties insured as feed wheat can belong to a number of wheat classes, including Canada Western Soft White Spring (CWSWS), Canada Western Special Purpose (CWSP) and Canada Northern Hard Red (CNHR), as well as unregistered varieties.

So far in 2016, yields for cereal crops are ranging from average to above the 5-year average.  However, there is variability noted across the province, largely due to the amount of precipitation received over the growing season.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Data source:  http://www.mmpp.com/mmpp.nsf/mmpp_browser_variety.html

Manitoba Agriculture website: www.manitoba.ca/agriculture
Manitoba Agriculture on Twitter: @MBGovAg
Manitoba Agriculture on YouTube: www.youtube.com/ManitobaAgriculture

 

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

Ergot in Fall Rye

Originally published August 11, 2014 & Updated July 2016

In touring MCVET trials over the past few weeks, I have come across ergot in a number of fall rye trials.

What is Ergot?  Ergot infects many cereals and grasses, including, in order of decreasing susceptibility, rye, triticale, wheat and barley. Oats are rarely affected. Ergot symptoms become evident during kernel formation, when ergot bodies are formed in place of kernels. The ergot bodies, also called sclerotia, are formed from a hard mass of fungal mycelium. The ergot bodies have a hard protective rind on the outside, which is black to dark purple in colour. They are often elongated and protrude from the glumes of maturing heads (see photo).

Ergot in Fall Rye MCVET Portage la Prairie 2016

Ergot in Fall Rye MCVET Trial at Portage la Prairie, MB (Photo by P. de Rocquigny, 2016)

Yield reductions are usually slight. However, the ergot bodies contain toxic alkaloids that are poisonous to humans and livestock, which can result in rejection or downgrading of contaminated grain.

Conditions that favour Ergot – Ergot is most prevalent in years when cool, damp weather in late spring and early summer favour ergot germination and prolong the flowering period of cereals and grasses increasing the opportunity for ergot infection.

What are some options for managing Ergot?  Unfortunately, there is not much to control ergot in the field once ergot is found. Prevention is the best management strategy.

  • Harvesting techniques: Ergot levels are typically higher around the edge of the field so scout fields to determine where ergot development is the worst, such as the headlands, and harvest those areas separately. In some cases, delaying harvest of a standing crop may allow more time for ergot bodies to fall out of the head.
  • Tillage: For farmers using conventional tillage, burying the crop residue and ergot bodies to a depth of approximately four centimetres can impede their germination the following spring.
  • Seed cleaning: Ergot bodies are relatively easy to clean from the seed lot, but can be expensive. However, it may be worth the cost to save a grade.
  • Plant clean seed: Planting seed infested with ergot bodies can spread disease to previously clean fields. There are no seed treatments effective against ergot.
  • Crop rotation: Ergot bodies survive in the soil for approximately one year, so crop rotation away from cereals for one to two years is recommended.
  • Sanitation: Mow around headlands or roadways to remove grasses before they flower so they do not serve as a host for the first stage of the disease cycle.

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Sources:

Respond
Have a follow-up question?
,

Fertilizer Implications in a Dry Spring for Winter Cereal Crops

Prior to the precipitation that started Wednesday, May 25th, it had been unusually dry this spring (Figure 1 below) and there are nitrogen fertilization implications.

Picture1

Figure 1. Rainfall received in Carman, 2016.

Farmers and agronomists may be wondering about the fate of previously applied surface fertilizer. The 2 main concerns would have been stranding at the soil surface where it is isolated from the crop root zone, and volatilization loss.

Rainfall is the only solution for the positional stranding at the soil surface. For spring seeded crops this rainfall will likely have moved N into the root zone before any malnutrition of the seedling.  However surface applied N to fall rye and winter wheat may have been stranded during the main yield building period, since both crops are at the boot stage now (Figure 2 below).  So in the Carman area, topdressed N applied after April 17 was probably stranded.  Nitrogen moving into the root zone now will contribute more to protein than yield.

N Uptake by Wheat for Yield & Protein

Figure 2. Nitrogen uptake pattern by wheat (from C. Jones., Montana State University)

The other concern is of volatilization loss of surface applied N. But much of the surface applied N to spring seeded crops was onto dry soil – and we have had several  field demonstrations to measure volatilization loss using dosimeter tubes (see photo below). In the cases we have followed, the soil surface must have been dry enough to prevent measurable hydrolysis (where the urea molecule is cleaved into carbon dioxide and 2 ammonia molecules).  In fact urea pellets were observed intact for several weeks on the soil surface.  So unless a light shower had been received, I anticipate losses were minimal.  Where some soil moisture was present, the losses would have proceeded until the soil surface dried up.

figure 3

Figure 3. Dosimeter tubes to monitor ammonia loss from surface applied urea or UAN. Note intact urea pellets at soil surface some 10 days after application. There were no ammonia losses.

 

The best way to sense any N shortage in the crop is comparing to a N Rich Strip. Many farmers no longer overlap fertilizer so this is difficult to detect. If there is little to no colour difference between a N rich strip and the general field, then losses are probably minimal.

Submitted by: John Heard, Crop Nutrition Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

For more information on soil fertility, visit Manitoba Agriculture’s website at http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/soil-fertility/index.html
Respond
Have a follow-up question?

The Potential Impact of Spring Frost on Winter Wheat

With the forecasted cooler overnight temperatures, here is a refresher on the potential impact spring frost can have on winter wheat crops in Manitoba. (Hopefully, we won’t have a need for this post!).  Currently, winter wheat acres range in development from tillering to stem elongation.

For winter wheat at tillering stage, plants can withstand very low temperatures for a period of time (-11°C for less than 2 hours). Frost damaged winter wheat at this stage will have leaf chlorosis and necrotic leaf tips. However, the effect on yield will be slight.

For winter wheat at jointing stage (stem elongation), plants can tolerate temperatures of -4°C for less than 2 hours.  Frost injury symptoms could include a dead leaf appearing in the whorl if the growing point was damaged, leaf yellowing or burning, or splitting or bending of the lower stem.  The impact to yield can range from moderate to severe, and lodging can also occur later in the season if stems were damaged.

For winter wheat at the boot stage, plants can tolerate temperatures of -2°C for less than 2 hours.  Frost injury symptoms in winter wheat (or even fall rye) can include spikes being trapped inside the boot and they may not emerge normally, spikes may emerge but may remain yellow or even white (sometimes only portions of the head may be impacted), awns may be twisted and you may see floret sterility resulting in poor kernel set and low grain yield.

In 2012, we did see winter wheat crops impacted by frost.  A frost event occurred May 30 when some winter wheat acres were at the early flag emergence stage.  When the spikes started to emerge, injury symptoms were noted.  In the photo below (taken by Ingrid Kristjanson, MAFRD),  you will note frost injury symptoms of twisted awns and incomplete kernel set.

Frost damaged winter wheat - ingrid

Frost Damaged Winter Wheat; Frost was Recorded May 30 at Early Flag Leaf Stage (2012) – Photo by Ingrid Kristjanson, Manitoba Agriculture

In Manitoba Agriculture’s June 3, 2015 webinar (available on YouTube at http://youtu.be/UDa3uWMmZzg), I covered some of the basics of frost injury symptoms in winter cereal crops and what to look for in terms of recovery.

For more information on frost damage in winter cereals and other crop types, please refer to Manitoba Agriculture’s Spring Frost Damage Bulletin.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Respond
Have a follow-up question?
,

Impact of Frost on Winter Wheat & Fall Rye

The May 30th frost had the potential to impact winter wheat and fall rye crops in Manitoba as some may have been in crop stages more sensitive to freezing temperatures.  In MAFRD’s June 3 webinar (available on YouTube at http://youtu.be/UDa3uWMmZzg), I covered some of the basics of frost injury symptoms in winter cereal crops and what to look for in terms of recovery.  The more vulnerable growth stages are either the jointing (stem elongation) or boot stage of development.

For winter wheat at jointing stage, plants can tolerate temperatures of -4°C for less than 2 hours.  In areas of Manitoba, these temperatures may have been achieved along with some acres at the jointing stage, but whether the duration was long enough is unclear so scouting will be important over the coming days/weeks. Frost injury symptoms could include a dead leaf appearing in the whorl if the growing point was damaged, leaf yellowing or burning, or splitting or bending of the lower stem.  The impact to yield can range from moderate to severe, and lodging can also occur later in the season if stems were damaged.

For winter wheat at the boot stage, plants can tolerate temperatures of -2°C for less than 2 hours.  There may have been limited acres at this growth stage for winter wheat. However, it is possible some fall rye acres were at the boot stage, and in many areas temperatures did fall below -2°C for more than 2 hours.  Frost injury symptoms in either crop can include spikes being trapped inside the boot and they may not emerge normally, spikes may emerge but may remain yellow or even white (sometimes only portions of the head may be impacted), awns may be twisted and you may see floret sterility resulting in poor kernel set and low grain yield.

In 2012, we did see winter wheat crops impacted by frost.  A frost event occurred May 30 when some winter wheat acres were at the early flag emergence stage.  When the spikes started to emerge, injury symptoms were noted.  In the photo below (taken by Ingrid Kristjanson, MAFRD),  you will note frost injury symptoms of twisted awns and incomplete kernel set.

Frost damaged winter wheat - ingrid

Frost Damaged Winter Wheat; Frost was Recorded May 30 at Early Flag Leaf Stage (2012) – Photo by Ingrid Kristjanson, MAFRD

For more information on frost damage in winter cereals and other crop types, please refer to MAFRD’s Spring Frost Damage Bulletin.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, MAFRD

 

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

Finding Ergot?

MAFRD staff have been busy doing surveys in cereal fields and MCVET trials over the past several weeks.  I have come across ergot in a number of winter wheat and spring wheat fields, as well as the MCVET spring wheat trials.

What is Ergot?  Ergot infects many cereals and grasses, including, in order of decreasing susceptibility, rye, triticale, wheat and barley. Oats are rarely affected. Ergot symptoms become evident during kernel formation, when ergot bodies are formed in place of kernels. The ergot bodies, also called sclerotia, are formed from a hard mass of fungal mycelium. The ergot bodies have a hard protective rind on the outside, which is black to dark purple in colour. They are often elongated and protrude from the glumes of maturing heads (see photo below).

Yield reductions are usually slight. However, the ergot bodies contain toxic alkaloids that are poisonous to humans and livestock, which can result in rejection or downgrading of contaminated grain.

Ergot

Spring Wheat Infected with Ergot.  Photo by Pam de Rocquigny, 2014

Conditions that favour Ergot – Ergot is most prevalent in years when cool, damp weather in late spring and early summer favour ergot germination and prolong the flowering period of cereals and grasses increasing the opportunity for ergot infection.

What are some options for managing Ergot?  Unfortunately, there is not much to control ergot in the field once ergot is found. Prevention is the best management strategy.

  • Harvesting techniques: Ergot levels are typically higher around the edge of the field so scout fields to determine where ergot development is the worst, such as the headlands, and harvest those areas separately. In some cases, delaying harvest of a standing crop may allow more time for ergot bodies to fall out of the head.
  • Tillage: For farmers using conventional tillage, burying the crop residue and ergot bodies to a depth of approximately four centimetres can impede their germination the following spring.
  • Seed cleaning: Ergot bodies are relatively easy to clean from the seed lot, but can be expensive. However, it may be worth the cost to save a grade.
  • Plant clean seed: Planting seed infested with ergot bodies can spread disease to previously clean fields. There are no seed treatments effective against ergot.
  • Crop rotation: Ergot bodies survive in the soil for approximately one year, so crop rotation away from cereals for one to two years is recommended.
  • Sanitation: Mow around headlands or roadways to remove grasses before they flower so they do not serve as a host for the first stage of the disease cycle.

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, MAFRD Cereal Crops Specialist

Sources:

 

Respond
Have a follow-up question?

Is it okay to seed fall rye back into rye stubble?

Is it okay to seed fall rye back into rye stubble? I know the deadline to seed is Sept 15. Are there any pro/cons to seeding, say Aug. 15? How does rye do in loam soil? I’m thinking of doing a test plot on some land where I’ve never grown it before.

It is not recommended to follow fall rye with either fall rye or winter wheat because of problems with volunteer rye. Also, if ergot has been an issue, you should follow with a non-susceptible crop for at least a year. Fall rye is best seeded into stubble from a previous non-cereal crop that will allow trapping of snow to reduce winterkill risk.

Seeding fall rye too early usually results in reduced yield and lower 1,000-kernel weight. On the other hand, seeding too late can result in reduced yields, delayed heading, later maturity and lower bushel weight. Fall rye should normally have two to four leaves and up to one tiller before freeze-up, which generally means optimum seeding is in late August-early September. Insurance seeding deadlines for fall rye are Aug. 15 to Sept. 20 (full coverage), with an extended seeding period to Sept. 25 (20 per cent reduced coverage). For more information, contact your MASC agent.

Fall rye is adapted to a wide range of soil types and conditions. It’s a good choice for light, sandy, erosion-prone land, but will respond to better soil types and fertility.

The CropChatter Team

Respond
Have a follow-up question?