Summary of Presentations from the International Congress of Entomology, September 25-30, 2016

Submitted & Summarized by: John Gavloski, Entomologist, Manitoba Agriculture

The following link provides highlights from some of the presentations most pertinent to agronomists and farmers in Manitoba. Please contact me for further information on these presentations or meetings. Due to there being concurrent sessions at these meetings, there were many more presentations than what is presented in this summary. These were selected because of their relevance or potential interest to those working in agriculture in Manitoba. I have categorized the presentation reported by commodity group or discipline.

The information presented is a combination of material from oral presentations, poster presentations and provided as abstracts for the various symposiums. Many presentations have multiple authors, however only the presenting author is reported in this summary.

http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/insects/pubs/int-congress-of-entomology-2016-summary.pdf

Visit the Insect Pages of our Manitoba Agriculture website at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/insects/index.html

 

 

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Preventing Stored Grain Insects at Harvest Time

#Harvest16 is here and a below is a quick review (from the most recent Manitoba Disease & Insect Update – August 10, 2016) of preventing stored grain insects from John Gavloski, Provincial Entomologist with Manitoba Agriculture.

Preventing stored grain insects: A reminder before moving and storing new grain to clean old grain out of bins, augers, combines, truck beds, and other areas where grain or grain debris may be. Infestations of stored grain insects such as rusty grain beetles usually do not get started by harvesting the insects along with the grain. They are often the result of insects already being present in bins or equipment used to move grain, or insects being able to get into the stored grain through openings in bins or storage structures. Figure 1 (below) is a picture of a sawtoothed grain beetle (top right), red flour beetle (bottom left), and rusty grain beetle (bottom right) with a grain of wheat (top left) to give perspective on size.

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Figure 1. Some beetles that may occur in stored grain.

Some insects in stored grain, such as the rusty grain beetle, will feed primarily on the grain, while others, such as foreign grain beetle, may be feeding primarily on molds growing on grain that is too moist. So it is good to know the species you are dealing with as management options may differ. Additional information on identifying and managing insects on stored grain can be found at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/insects/prevention-and-management-of-insects-and-mites-in-farm-stored-grain.html

For long-term storage of grain, lowering the grain temperature below 15C as soon as possible after the grain is placed in storage can help minimize the risk of stored grain insects. Below 15C potential insect pests of stored grain stop laying eggs and development stops. Grain that is not aerated or moved after harvest can often remain warm enough for insects to survive the winter.

Following proper storage recommendations is also a key component in Cereals Canada’s Keep It Clean initiative. More information is available at http://www.cerealscanada.ca/keep-it-clean/

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

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Archived MAFRD Seasonal Reports

Crop Industry Branch staff, as well as other MAFRD staff, work each year to provides seasonal updates on what is happening in Manitoba fields and news about conditions that could affect your crops.

The various reports below are archived and available for viewing on MAFRD’s website:

The archived information will be of benefit as we try to explain what happened in 2015, how does 2015 compare to other years, and how to apply what we’ve learned to the 2016 crop year!

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, MAFRD

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Summary of Insects on Crops in Manitoba in 2015

A “Summary of Insects on Crops in Manitoba in 2015” is posted on the MAFRD insect page at the link below.

This report is based partially on observation by myself and my summer assistant. A large part of this information, however, is based on observations and reports from farm production advisors, extension coordinators, agronomists, farmers, and others who contributed information over the season. This information was helpful in providing timely updates on where and when insects were of concern throughout the season, and it is a compilation of this data that makes up this summary. Thank you very much to those who contributed information over the growing season.

I hope this information is useful in your winter planning and preparations for next year.

http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/insects/pubs/2015summary.pdf

Submitted by: John Gavloski, Entomologist, MAFRD
Visit the Insect Pages of our MAFRD website at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/insects/index.html

 

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Preventing Stored Grain Insects

A reminder before moving and storing new grain to clean old grain out of bins, augers, combines, truck beds, and other areas where grain or grain debris may be. Infestations of stored grain insects such as rusty grain beetles do not get started by harvesting the insects along with the grain. They are the result of insects already being present in bins or equipment used to move grain, or insects being able to get into the stored grain through openings in bins or storage structures.

In Figure 1 below, there is a picture of a sawtoothed grain beetle (top right), red flour beetle (bottom left), and rusty grain beetle (bottom right) with a grain of wheat (top left) to give perspective on size.

grain-feeding-beetles

Figure 1. Some beetles that may occur in stored grain.

Some insects in stored grain, such as the rusty grain beetle, will feed primarily on the grain, while others, such as foreign grain beetle, may be feeding primarily on molds growing on grain that is too moist. So it is good to know the species you are dealing with as management options may differ. Although both are very small beetles, when placed in a glass jar foreign grain beetles can climb up the sides, while rusty grain beetles cannot.
For long-term storage of grain, lowering the grain temperature below 15C as soon as possible after the grain is placed in storage can help minimize the risk of stored grain insects. Below 15C potential insect pests of stored grain stop laying eggs and development stops. Grain that is not aerated or moved after harvest can often remain warm enough for insects to survive the winter.
The above information was submitted by John Gavloski, MAFRD Entomologist.  It is available in the last issue of the Manitoba Insect and Disease Update which is posted at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/insect-report-archive/insect-update-2015-08-24.html
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Crop Biosecurity and the Roles We Play

Submitted by Anastasia Kubinec, MAFRD Oilseed Crop Specialist
Reduction of pest movement in crops, is good business for everyone involved.  Though producers are responsible for their operations, others working on agricultural lands have also have the responsibility to reduce pest movement, introduction or increase of pest populations (ex: weed, insect, disease, nematode, etc.), as these all can have long-term negative effects on farm productivity.
  • Assess risks associated with your operation for pest introduction and movement around farm.
  • Develop protocols to reduce the potential of pest introduction and spread between fields and properties.
  • Implement protocols and management practices in your operation.
  • Communicate with other groups working on your property about your protocols and expectations.

For Agricultural Retail, Custom Equipment Operators and Service Provider Industries

  • Develop and implement protocols that pertain to the activities and services you conduct on producers fields.
    • equipment cleaning between fields
    • avoid equipment traffic on fields during wet conditions
    • increased communication with clients on their expectations
  • Communicate and educate clients and industry about biosecurity and the threat that pest movement represents to Manitoba crop production.

For Energy, Construction, Water Management, Transportation Industry and Municipal Work on Agricultural Land

  • Develop and implement protocols to prevent pest movement and establishment to other fields and properties.  Protocols could include:
    • equipment cleaning between fields
    • avoid equipment traffic on fields during wet conditions
    • increased communication with clients on their expectations
  • Communicate and educate clients and industry about biosecurity and the threat that pest movement represents to Manitoba crop production.

For Private and Public Agronomists

  • Conduct field surveys for crop pests, publically reporting on current pest levels and the discovery of new pest.
  • Provide consultation, extension information and training on how to identify and control pests.
  • Educate the agriculture industry, oil industry and general public about biosecurity and the threat of pest introduction, multiplication and movement .
  • Educate agricultural retail industry, environmental companies, tile drainage/water management, custom applicators, petroleum, construction and transportation industries, and landscaping companies about equipment sanitation requirements and pest spread within and between fields and municipalities.

For Agricultural Researchers

  • Assess the risks associated with your activities for pest introduction and movement between fields where research is occurring.
  • Develop protocols to reduce the potential of pest introduction and spread between fields and properties
    • cleaning equipment between fields
    • training on non-target pest identification
  • Communicate with the producer cooperator or field station manager about their biosecurity expectations, discussing the management activities to be implemented.
    • Discuss protocols with staff so they understand the expectations.
  • Provide consultation, extension and training on pest identification and management with researchers, other government bodies, industry and producers.
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Scouting for Aster Leafhoppers

Submitted by John Gavloski, MAFRD Entomologist and Holly Derksen, MAFRD Field Crop Pathologist

Aster leafhoppers and other species of leafhoppers have been observed in large numbers in an individual winter wheat field in east-central North Dakota (NDSU Crop & Pest Report, May 14) At this time, aster leafhoppers have not been reported in Manitoba, and it is too early to know what the risk is for crops in Manitoba. Determining the risk will involve knowing when they arrive in Manitoba, what the populations are like, and what percent of the population carries the aster yellows phytoplasm. But it is not too early to start scouting for them in vegetation that is tall enough to sweep with a sweep net. Aster leafhoppers are small, about 2-3 mm long as adults, wedge-shaped, and have six distinctive dark coloured spots on their head (see image). Adults will readily fly when disturbed.

AsterLeafhopperFromWinterWheat.JG.Graysville,MB.June24,11

Aster leafhoppers can carry aster yellows, a disease caused by a bacterium-like organism known as a phytoplasma. Aster yellows can infect many crops including carrot, potato, flax, and cereals. Although canola is not a preferred host plant, aster leafhoppers will feed on it, and signs of aster yellows are quite visible in canola. Aster yellows was a significant problem for canola growers (and potentially cereal growers) in 2012. The leafhoppers blew in early and often in 2012 and had high levels of infectivity with aster yellows. The earlier a plant becomes infected with this disease, the more significant the yield effect can be. It is unknown at this time what percentage, if any, of the leafhopper population currently present in North Dakota is infected with aster yellows.

There are no economic thresholds for aster leafhopper in field crops. They are highly mobile insects that move quickly from crop to crop and new populations can blow in from the south at any time of the year.

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Summary of Insects on Crops in Manitoba in 2014

A “Summary of Insects on Crops in Manitoba in 2014” is posted on the MAFRD insect page at the link below.

The report is based partially on observation by myself and my summer assistant. A large part of this information, however, is based on observations and reports from farm production advisors, agronomists, farmers, and others who contributed information over the season. This information was helpful in providing timely updates on where and when insects were of concern throughout the season, and it is a compilation of this data that makes up this summary. Thank you very much to those who contributed information over the growing season.

Note also that the information in the summary is what has been observed personally or reported, and may not be complete in many instances. Although we encourage the reporting of information on insect populations and control to make our weekly updates as complete and useful as possible, some areas of high insect populations and areas where control took place may not have been reported.

http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/insects/pubs/2014summary.pdf

Submitted by:  John Gavloski, Entomologist, MAFRD

For more information on identification and monitoring of potentially damaging and beneficial insects in crops grown in Manitoba, and information on various types of control methods, please visit MAFRD’s website at http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/insects/index.html
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Warm Soil Means Fast Emergence….So Go Scout!

With most soil temperatures across Manitoba averaging over 10C, and the good soil moisture, crops planted are emerging quickly!

So, great news, but what this means is it is time to get out and start scouting!

Things to look for are:

  1. Emergence, plant stands, patterns in field – this can indicate if seeds planted evenly, but can also you could indicate early issues like cutworms, soil-borne disease and herbicide residue injury.
  2. Weeds species, numbers and size – if you crop is coming up this fast, so are the weeds!  Targetting the weeds when they are small and knowing the species so you can choose the right product and the right will really help with the control.  Make sure those little yield-robbbers don’t get to use the sun, moisture and fertilizer instead of your crop.
  3. Insects – cutworms were mentioned before, but more look more specifically for the damage on the plants if you can’t see the insect, as that can help with identification.  Are leaves clipped off leaves at or above the soil vs. chewed with ‘shot-gun’ hole marks in leaves.  Keep in mind the economic thresholds for control!
  4. Other funny stuff ?  Keep these in mind too when out scouting and mark down spots (or GPS tag) to monitor as the days go on to see how they progress, sometimes it takes a couple of days before things become obvious.  When in doubt give the Crops Knowledge Centre a call at 204-745-5663.

Submitted by: Anastasia Kubinec, Oilseed Crop Specialist, MAFRD Crops Knowledge Centre.

Resources:

MAFRD Guide to Crop Protection: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/guides-and-publications/index.html#gfcp

Weed Identification: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/weeds/

Insect Identification: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/insects/index.html

 

 

 

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Updated Treated Seed Best Management Practices

The Updated Treated Seed Best Management Practices document is now posted to the Health Canada website:  http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/pubs/pest/_fact-fiche/pollinator-protection-pollinisateurs/treated_seed-semences_traitees-eng.php

The PDF of the updated document is also available:  Pollinator Protection and Responsible Use of Insecticide Treated Seed_January 8, 2014 (Health Canada)

Overview:

Best Management Practices

Insect pollinators are vital to agricultural production and the environment. Many farmers, including those who grow corn and soybeans, use insecticide treated seed to protect their crop from insect pests. Some insecticides, such as neonicotinoids, are toxic to pollinators. Planting of treated seed can spread dust that contains insecticide into the air, placing pollinators at significant risk of exposure to toxic insecticides. Factors that impact the risk of exposure include the use of treated seed, type of planting equipment, planting conditions, flowering resources and bee yard locations.

The following Best Management Practices (BMPs) are provided to reduce the risk to bees and other insect pollinators from exposure to dust from treated seed. The BMPs provide a toolbox of options that should be used in combination wherever possible.

  1. Read and adhere to the pesticide label and seed tag directions
  2. Practice Integrated Pest Management when choosing seed treatments
  3. Develop and maintain shared communication with beekeepers to help protect honeybees
  4. Recognize pollinator habitat and take special care to reduce dust exposure
  5. Avoid generating dust when handling and loading treated seed
  6. Managing planting equipment to decrease dust drift
  7. Use appropriate seed flow lubricant
  8. Ensure proper clean-up and disposal

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, MAFRD Cereal Crops Specialist & John Gavloski, MAFRD Extension Entomologist

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