Modified from Post Originally Published July 30, 2014
Staging a crop for preharvest glyphosate application for perennial weed control can be difficult when there is variability of crop staging within the targeted field. As well, kernels in the same spike will reach physiological maturity at different times, with the middle of the head maturing first. To go back to the basics, for wheat you want to apply the preharvest glyphosate when grain moisture of the wheat crop is less than 30%. In terms of visual assessment, the wheat crop must be in the hard dough stage. This is when the kernel has become firm and hard and a thumbnail impression remains on the seed (see Figure 1). Remember….you can’t rely on the color of the field as an indicator. Walk the field and hand thresh heads to determine kernel staging.
Figure 1: Kernels at various times during grain filling: a) kernel at watery ripe, b) kernel at late milk, c) kernel at soft dough, d) kernel at hard dough showing loss of green color, and e) kernel ripe for harvest.
Source: Growth and development guide for spring wheat. 1995. S.R. Simmons, E.A. Oekle & P.M. Anderson. Photographer: Dave Hansen.
Another visual indicator for wheat is a change in color of the peduncle, which is the part of the stem located just below the head. It will have turned very light green or yellow at physiological maturity (Figure 2).
Source: Topics Addressing Small Grain Crop Dry-down and Harvest . 2015. Jochum Wiersma, Small Grains Specialist; Doug Holen, Crops Extension Educator and Phyllis Bongard, Educational Development and Communications Specialist
So what is special about this 30% moisture content? At the end of the hard dough stage, the kernel has reached its maximum dry weight and the wheat is therefore physiologically mature, i.e. no more weight is added to the grain. Therefore, final yield has been determined.
If application of a preharvest glyphosate occurs prior to the 30% moisture content, yield can be reduced, along with quality factors such as test weight. In addition, early application prior to the recommended timing may result in grain with glyphosate levels above maximum residue limits. This could have implications depending upon target market.
So in timing an application on a variable field, this will be difficult but remember its likely better to apply on the later side than too early. Also remember that depending on weather conditions, glyphosate can take up to 2 weeks for optimal weed control. However, under hot, dry conditions harvest could commence is as little as 7 days after application. So keep harvest timing and weather forecasts in mind as well when planning your preharvest application.
Notes: Do not apply to wheat, or any crops, grown for seed. Not all glyphosate products are registered for preharvest application on all crop species – always refer to individual crop labels for a list of registered uses and crop species. Check with malt barley or milling oat buyers prior to application to confirm acceptance of glyphosate-treated grain.
Following label instructions and keeping in mind pre-harvest intervals are also key component in Cereals Canada’s Keep It Clean initiative. More information is available at http://www.cerealscanada.ca/keep-it-clean/
Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture