Provincial 5-Year Average Yields for Cereal Crops in Manitoba

As Harvest 2016 progresses, there is always the question “How will this year’s yields compare to what producers typically see, i.e. average yields?”

If we use yield data reported by producers to Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC)  over the last 5-year period (2011 to 2015), average cereal crop yields are as follows:

  • red spring wheat – 51 bushels per acre
  • feed wheat – 68 bushels per acre
  • CPS wheat – 48 bushels per acre
  • barley – 64 bushels per acre
  • oats – 91 bushels per acre
  • winter wheat – 63 bushels per acre
  • fall rye – 44 bushels per acre

Note: varieties insured as feed wheat can belong to a number of wheat classes, including Canada Western Soft White Spring (CWSWS), Canada Western Special Purpose (CWSP) and Canada Northern Hard Red (CNHR), as well as unregistered varieties.

So far in 2016, yields for cereal crops are ranging from average to above the 5-year average.  However, there is variability noted across the province, largely due to the amount of precipitation received over the growing season.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Data source:  http://www.mmpp.com/mmpp.nsf/mmpp_browser_variety.html

Manitoba Agriculture website: www.manitoba.ca/agriculture
Manitoba Agriculture on Twitter: @MBGovAg
Manitoba Agriculture on YouTube: www.youtube.com/ManitobaAgriculture

 

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Late Season Crown Rust & Stem Rust in Oats

On a recent tour of the MCVET Portage la Prairie site,  I found both stem and crown rust present. Here is a quick refresher on the differences between stem rust and crown rust in oats.

Stem rust
Stem rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f.sp. avenae.  Symptoms include dusty, raised reddish-brown, oblong spots on the stems (see Figure 1), but can appears on leaves (see Figure 2). When developed, spots will rupture through the surface, releasing spores into the air. The surface of the tissue appears ragged and torn.

Stem Rust in 2016 MCVET Oat Trial - Portage

Figure 1: Stem Rust in Oats at MCVET Portage la Prairie Site (Photo by: P. de Rocquigny, 2016)

 

Stem Rust Symptoms on Leaves of Oats at Portage la Prairie MCVET Site (Photo by P. de Rocquigny, 2016)

Stem Rust Symptoms on Leaves of Oats at Portage la Prairie MCVET Site (Photo by P. de Rocquigny, 2016)

Crown rust
Crown rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata f.sp avenae. The characteristic symptom is the development of small, scattered, oval-to-oblong, bright orange-yellow pustules (uredinia) on the upper and lower surfaces of leaves (see Figure 3). The powdery spore masses in the pustules are readily dislodged.  The number and size of the crown rust uredia vary greatly, depending on the susceptibility of the oat variety and the severity of infection. Crown rust is distinguished from stem rust of oats by the bright, orange-yellow color, the smaller size of the pustules, plus the lack of conspicuous, jagged fragments of oat epidermis adhering to the sides and ends of the pustules.

Crown Rust in 2016 MCVET Oat Portage

Figure 3: Crown Rust in Oats at MCVET Portage la Prairie Site (Photo by P. de Rocquigny, 2016)

As the oat plants begin to ripen, the black overwintering spores (teliospores) are formed (Figure 4). These spores also may form earlier in the season during periods of adverse weather, such as extreme drought, excessive moisture, or very high temperatures.

IMG_0913

Figure 4: Crown Rust in Oats at MCVET Portage la Prairie Site (Photo by P. de Rocquigny, 2016)

There isn’t much to be done at this stage of the growing season if either rust is found.  However, in future growing seasons control options would include planting resistant varieties, seeding early if possible, and application of fungicides.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Source: Crown Rust of Oats: http://ipm.illinois.edu/diseases/series100/rpd109/
Rust Diseases in Canada: http://prairiesoilsandcrops.ca/articles/volume-4-10-screen.pdf

For additional information, visit Manitoba Agriculture’s website:

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Estimating Harvest Losses in Cereals – Don’t Just Rely on the Grain Loss Monitor!

UPDATED FROM ARTICLE POSTED ON AUGUST 12, 2015

Winter wheat and fall rye harvest is underway in Manitoba. Since final yields aren’t determined until the crop is in the bin, attention now has to be focused on the harvest operation. Grain loss at harvesting time is a direct loss of income. The more grain saved, the greater the returns. The following information comes from 2 articles: ‘Grain Harvest Losses’ by V. Hofman with edits by Dr. J Wiersma & T. Allrich (University of Minnesota) and ‘Estimating Harvest Loss’ by G. Carlson & D. Clay (South Dakota State University).

Grain harvest losses result from shattering of the standing grain, shattering during windrowing (swathing) or direct combining, picking up the swath with the combine, and threshing, separating and cleaning within the combine. Estimates of acceptable losses for small grains such as wheat, barley and oats are placed at 3% of total yield (total yield equals harvested yield plus harvest losses).

It is usually very difficult to reduce total losses below 1 to 2% so the operator must decide on the value of the crop, the cost of combining and the time available for combining or climate conditions. Some harvest loss is unavoidable in order to get harvesting done in the time available with an end goal of cleaned harvested grain.

Estimating Harvest Losses.  Advancements in engineering have greatly improved harvest operations. Combines have various types of monitoring equipment available, including grain loss monitors, to help alert the operator to any potential problems.  A grain loss monitor is a good guide in selecting travel speed for varying conditions such as size of windrow and moisture conditions. A grain loss monitor must be calibrated to provide an acceptable grain loss reading. If the combine is used on different crops, the monitors are not only useful in limiting maximum speeds and losses, but can be used to properly feed the combine for optimum capacity.

However, a grain loss monitor is not a substitute for careful machine adjustments and good old fashioned monitoring, i.e. getting out of the combine to estimate losses. Or even better, when your local retail agronomist comes out with cold beverages, put him/her to work to estimate harvest losses.

A simple and rough estimate of grain loss requires the use of a one-foot square frame. A rough estimate of how much grain is left behind in a harvested field can be done with a few simple steps:

  1. Pick a typical area of the field after the combine has passed.
  2. Place a 1 ft by 1 ft (inside dimension) box on the ground and count the kernels found within the box. To improve accuracy, three counts (one behind the left side of the header, one behind the centre of the combine, and one behind the right side of the combine) are better.
  3. A one (1) bushel per acre loss equates to 20 wheat kernels/ft2, 14 barley kernels/ft2 and 10 oat kernels/ft2. Keep in mind that this is a ‘fudge factor’ but for the purpose of rough field estimation is an adequate estimate. There are more accurate ways to estimate harvest losses which take into consideration the width of windrower cut and combine cylinder.

If losses are on the high end, some investigation is warranted to try and identify the source of loss.  Is the crop shattering prior to the arrival of the combine (to check for losses that occurred prior to the arrival of the combine, i.e. shattering, use the method above in the unharvested areas of the field)? Are there header losses? Or are the losses due to less than perfect threshing/separation of grain within the combine?  Finding the answer may help to adjust the harvest operation and maximize the amount of grain going into the bin!

Good luck with #Harvest16!

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Manitoba Agriculture website: www.manitoba.ca/agriculture
Manitoba Agriculture on Twitter: @MBGovAg
Manitoba Agriculture on YouTube: www.youtube.com/ManitobaAgriculture
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STAGE CEREAL CROPS CORRECTLY FOR A PREHARVEST GLYPHOSATE APPLICATION

Modified from Post Originally Published July 30, 2014

Staging a crop for preharvest glyphosate application for perennial weed control can be difficult when there is variability of crop staging within the targeted field.  As well, kernels in the same spike will reach physiological maturity at different times, with the middle of the head maturing first. To go back to the basics, for wheat you want to apply the preharvest glyphosate when grain moisture of the wheat crop is less than 30%.  In terms of visual assessment, the wheat crop must be in the hard dough stage.  This is when the kernel has become firm and hard and a thumbnail impression remains on the seed (see Figure 1).  Remember….you can’t rely on the color of the field as an indicator.  Walk the field and hand thresh heads to determine kernel staging.

Figure 1:  Kernels at various times during grain filling: a) kernel at watery ripe, b) kernel at late milk, c) kernel at soft dough, d) kernel at hard dough showing loss of green color, and e) kernel ripe for harvest.

Source:  Growth and development guide for spring wheat. 1995.  S.R. Simmons, E.A. Oekle & P.M. Anderson.  Photographer:  Dave Hansen.

 

Another visual indicator for wheat is a change in color of the peduncle, which is the part of the stem located just below the head.  It will have turned very light green or yellow at physiological maturity (Figure 2).

wheat_spikes
Source: Topics Addressing Small Grain Crop Dry-down and Harvest . 2015. Jochum Wiersma, Small Grains Specialist; Doug Holen, Crops Extension Educator and Phyllis Bongard, Educational Development and Communications Specialist

 

So what is special about this 30% moisture content?  At the end of the hard dough stage, the kernel has reached its maximum dry weight and the wheat is therefore physiologically mature, i.e. no more weight is added to the grain.  Therefore, final yield has been determined.

If application of a preharvest glyphosate occurs prior to the 30% moisture content, yield can be reduced, along with quality factors such as test weightIn addition, early application prior to the recommended timing may result in grain with glyphosate levels above maximum residue limits.  This could have implications depending upon target market.

So in timing an application on a variable field, this will be difficult but remember its likely better to apply on the later side than too early.  Also remember that depending on weather conditions, glyphosate can take up to 2 weeks for optimal weed control. However, under hot, dry conditions harvest could commence is as little as 7 days after application.  So keep harvest timing and weather forecasts in mind as well when planning your preharvest application.

Notes: Do not apply to wheat, or any crops, grown for seed.  Not all glyphosate products are registered for preharvest application on all crop species – always refer to individual crop labels for a list of registered uses and crop species. Check with malt barley or milling oat buyers prior to application to confirm acceptance of glyphosate-treated grain.

Following label instructions and keeping in mind pre-harvest intervals are also key component in Cereals Canada’s Keep It Clean initiative. More information is available at http://www.cerealscanada.ca/keep-it-clean/

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

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Seeing Blast in Oats? It’s Not Just Heat Related!

Origingally published July 21, 2014

Over the past week, I have seen pictures or samples of oat panicles where there are empty florets on the panicle.  Oat samples displaying the same symptoms have come into Manitoba Agriculture’s Crop Diagnostic Centre.  Mardi Desjardins, formerly of Manitoba Agriculture, provided the following information on Blast in Oats.

oat blast

Blast in Oats. Photo by Manitoba Agriculture (2014)

Blast in oats can be caused by stresses such as unfavorable growing conditions prior to emergence of the panicle, any time from floret initiation to panicle emergence.  It is a little different from heat sterility related to high temperatures at anthesis and “blasted” florets typically appear incompletely developed.

Factors most commonly linked to blast in oats include insufficient light due to cloudy conditions, temperature extremes, moisture stress, or physical damage from hail.  Florets begin forming several weeks prior to emergence of the panicle and if stresses occur during the development, the least developed florets at time of the stress tend to be aborted. The ones most commonly affected are those toward the base of the panicle and on inner branches of the panicle which are the youngest.  Blasted florets can however, potentially occur throughout the panicle or in a different area of the panicle.

The lower part of the panicle location in the picture above and the incompletely developed nature of the florets in the picture are classic for the environmentally caused “blast”.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture & Mardi Desjardins, formerly of the Crop Diagnostic Centre

Manitoba Agriculture website: www.manitoba.ca/agriculture
Manitoba Agriculture on Twitter: @MBGovAg
Manitoba Agriculture on YouTube: www.youtube.com/ManitobaAgriculture

 

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Scout Your Oat Fields for Crown Rust

During the growing season, reports on the current rust situation and how it is progressing in the United States are available in the Cereal Rust Bulletins from the USDA at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Main/docs.htm?docid=9757. Recently, crown rust has been reported in South Dakota and Minnesota.  These reports provide growers in Manitoba the opportunity to proactively scout for crown rust in their oat fields.

As a reminder, there have been changes within the crown rust pathogen populations in Manitoba where virulence has developed on a number of oat varieties. Varieties that contain the Pc91 gene, including AAC Justice, CDC Morrison, HiFi, Souris and Stainless, had been redefined for crown rust resistance in Seed Manitoba 2016 (www.seedmb.ca). The variety Summit, which is postulated to carry different resistance genes, is also losing its resistance to virulent races in the Eastern Prairies; therefore, it had also been redefined for crown rust resistance.

There are a number of steps used to determined if changes are occurring within the crown rust pathogen populations, and then whether changes in variety disease resistance ratings are required. Please take the time to read the attached article to learn more about how and why the crown rust resistance ratings did change in Seed Manitoba 2016.

Changes in Crown Rust Pathogen Populations Changes in Disease Resistance Ratings for Oats

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

With information from Dr. Jim Menzies, Phytopathologist, AAFC Morden & Dr. Jennifer Mitchell-Fetch, Oat Breeder, AAFC Brandon

 

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Historically, what has been seeding progress prior to May 1st?

Some producers have started their 2016 seeding operations, with spring wheat being seeded and from what I’ve heard a few acres of corn as well.  With some seeding done, I’ve been asked the question: “What has been seeding progress prior to May 1st in Manitoba in recent years?”.

Producers who participate in AgriInsurance provides seeding date information to Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC).  This dataset provides us a historical perspective of when seeding has taken place in the past.

In Table 1, cumulative seeding progress prior to May 1st for six crop types is provided.  A five year (2010-2014) average cumulative seeding progress is noted, along with what was seeded prior to May 1st in 2015. Please note that data is for final insured crop in the ground.

Table 1:  Seeding progress in Manitoba prior to May 1st.

Historical Planting Progress prior to May 1st

Data Source:  Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC)

What the table doesn’t show is the wide range of seeding progress prior to May 1st over the past few years.  If we look at seeding progress for red spring wheat in Manitoba, we’ve seen less than 1% of acres seeded prior to May 1st (2009, 2011, 2013 and 2014) but as many as 65% of acres (2010) planted in April.

Look for future updates to historical seeding progress as we enter May!

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

Follow Manitoba Agriculture on Twitter (@MBGovAg) to receive updates on seeding progress through the weekly Manitoba Crop Report.
The weekly crop report is also available at Manitoba Crop Report.

 

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SEED MANITOBA 2016: Changes in Crown Rust Resistance Ratings

The collaboration of AAFC, MCVET and Manitoba Agriculture through field surveys and additional testing has shown changes within the crown rust pathogen populations in Manitoba where virulence has developed on a number of oat varieties. Varieties that contain the Pc91 gene, including AAC Justice, CDC Morrison, HiFi, Souris and Stainless, have been redefined for crown rust resistance in Seed Manitoba 2016 (www.seedmb.ca). The variety Summit, which is postulated to carry different resistance genes, is also losing its resistance to virulent races in the Eastern Prairies; therefore, it has also been redefined for crown rust resistance.

This is not the first time crown rust resistance ratings has been changed in Seed Manitoba, nor will it be the last. As the pathogen population is highly variable, it can happen quite regularly where genes are defeated and lines once resistance to crown rust can become more susceptible.

There are a number of steps used to determined if changes are occurring within the crown rust pathogen populations, and then whether changes in variety disease resistance ratings are required. Please take the time to read the attached article to learn more about how and why the crown rust resistance ratings did change in Seed Manitoba 2016.

Changes in Crown Rust Pathogen Populations Equals Changes in Disease Resistance Ratings for Oats

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

With information from Dr. Jim Menzies, Phytopathologist, AAFC Morden & Dr. Jennifer Mitchell-Fetch, Oat Breeder, AAFC Brandon

 

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Cereal Varieties – 2015 Insured Commercial Acres

The “Cereal Varieties – 2015 Insured Commercial Acres” report is available on the Canadian Grain Commission’s web site. The report covers Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia and shows the number of insured acres of seeded varieties of wheat, durum, barley, oats, rye and triticale (plus other crop types). The report shows total acres of each cereal crop by province. Information for wheat is further broken down by class.

The report is based on information from Manitoba Management Plus Program, Saskatchewan Crop Insurance, Alberta Agricultural Financial Services Corp. and BC Crop Insurance.

Quick facts

  • The Canadian Grain Commission’s report is based on acres insured through provincial crop insurance in the western provinces and does not reflect total acres seeded.
  • Seeded area reported reflects commercial seed production and excludes pedigreed seed and organic production.
  • In the report, classification of varieties are based on the Canadian Grain Commission’s lists of designated varieties.

Associated links

 

For further information, contact the Canadian Grain Commission – Statistics and Business Information. 

Email: [email protected]

 

 

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Don’t Rely Solely on Your Grain Loss Monitor – Estimating Harvest Losses in Cereals

It is harvest time in Manitoba. Since final yields aren’t determined until the crop is in the bin, attention now has to be focused on the harvest operation. Grain loss at harvesting time is a direct loss of income. The more grain saved, the greater the returns. The following information comes from 2 articles: ‘Grain Harvest Losses’ by V. Hofman with edits by Dr. J Wiersma & T. Allrich (University of Minnesota) and ‘Estimating Harvest Loss’ by G. Carlson & D. Clay (South Dakota State University).

Grain harvest losses result from shattering of the standing grain, shattering during windrowing (swathing) or direct combining, picking up the swath with the combine, and threshing, separating and cleaning within the combine. Estimates of acceptable losses for small grains such as wheat, barley and oats are placed at 3% of total yield (total yield equals harvested yield plus harvest losses).

It is usually very difficult to reduce total losses below 1 to 2% so the operator must decide on the value of the crop, the cost of combining and the time available for combining or climate conditions. Some harvest loss is unavoidable in order to get harvesting done in the time available with an end goal of cleaned harvested grain.

Estimating Harvest Losses.  Advancements in engineering have greatly improved harvest operations. Combines have various types of monitoring equipment available, including grain loss monitors, to help alert the operator to any potential problems.  A grain loss monitor is a good guide in selecting travel speed for varying conditions such as size of windrow and moisture conditions. A grain loss monitor must be calibrated to provide an acceptable grain loss reading. If the combine is used on different crops, the monitors are not only useful in limiting maximum speeds and losses, but can be used to properly feed the combine for optimum capacity.

However, a grain loss monitor is not a substitute for careful machine adjustments and good old fashioned monitoring, i.e. getting out of the combine to estimate losses. Or even better, when your local retail agronomist comes out with cold beverages, put him/her to work to estimate harvest losses.

A simple and rough estimate of grain loss requires the use of a one-foot square frame. A rough estimate of how much grain is left behind in a harvested field can be done with a few simple steps:

  1. Pick a typical area of the field after the combine has passed.
  2. Place a 1 ft by 1 ft (inside dimension) box on the ground and count the kernels found within the box. To improve accuracy, three counts (one behind the left side of the header, one behind the centre of the combine, and one behind the right side of the combine) are better.
  3. A one (1) bushel per acre loss equates to 20 wheat kernels/ft2, 14 barley kernels/ft2 and 10 oat kernels/ft2. Keep in mind that this is a ‘fudge factor’ but for the purpose of rough field estimation is an adequate estimate. There are more accurate ways to estimate harvest losses which take into consideration the width of windrower cut and combine cylinder.

If losses are on the high end, some investigation is warranted to try and identify the source of loss.  Is the crop shattering prior to the arrival of the combine (do the above steps before harvest to determine this)? Are there header losses? Or are the losses due to less than perfect threshing/separation of grain within the combine?  Finding the answer may help to adjust the harvest operation and maximize the amount of grain going into the bin!

Good luck with Harvest 2015.

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, MAFRD

 

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