Historical Seeding in Progress in Manitoba – First Week of May

Producers who participate in AgriInsurance provides seeding date information to Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC).  This dataset provides us a historical perspective of when seeding has taken place in the past.  Seeding date data information is broken down into a week:month format, i.e. 1:05 is Week 1 in the 5th Month (May).  So 2:05 is Week 2 in May, and so on.

Each week is then categorized dependent on the day of the week in which the month starts.  So if Week 1 starts on a Sunday, there will be 7 days of seeding captured in Week 1.  However, if Week 1 starts on Friday (like we have in 2015), there are 9 days captured in Week 1.  Confused yet?  Essentially, each year will have a different number of days captured in each weekly timeframe, varying from 5 days up to 12 days.  However, the data still provides good reference points to seeding progress in Manitoba.

In Table 1, cumulative seeding progress to the end of Week 1 in May for six crop types is provided.  The last five year (2009-2013) average cumulative seeding progress is noted, along with what was seeded in the same timeframe in 2014.   Please note that data is for final insured crop in the ground.

Table 1:  Seeding progress (%) in Manitoba by end of Week 1 in May (1:05).

End of Week 1 May Seeding Progress

Based on the May 11th Manitoba Crop Report, overall seeding progress is estimated at 55% complete.  There isn’t a provincial breakdown provided of seeding progress by crop type, but in looking at each region, seeding of spring cereals is ahead of the 5-year average of 2009-2013, and well ahead of 2014!

Submitted by: Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, MAFRD 

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Yields Respectable in 2014 Despite a Challenging Year

Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC) has released an early version of the 2014 yield report with 99.8% of the Harvest Production Reports (HPRs) keyed in.  The table below summarizes the 2014 average yield by crop type based on the harvested acres, as well as comparisons to 2013 and a 5-year average (2009 to 2013).

2014 yields

In February 2015, MASC will release their annual Yield Manitoba publication and update their Manitoba Management Plus Program (MMPP) website (http://www.mmpp.com/mmpp.nsf/mmpp_index.html) where further information on yields and acres by variety will be released.  Additionally, the data will be more complete in February as all HPR’s will be keyed in.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Anastasia Kubinec & Dennis Lange, Crop Specialist with MAFRD

Special Thanks to Doug Wilcox, MASC, for providing the 2014 data!

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Stem Rust & Crown Rust in Oats

An agronomist contacted me in regards to finding rust in an oat field in Southern Manitoba. I toured out there today to find both stem and crown rust present in the field.  I also toured a MCVET oat trial where I could find stem rust in each of the entries.  I have provided a review below of stem rest and crown rust in oats.

Stem rust
Stem rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f.sp. avenae.  The disease appears as elongated reddish-brown pustules mainly on stems but also on leaves and heads. The powdery spore masses in the pustules can dislodge readily.

Stem rust causes yield losses through absorbing of nutrients that would otherwise be used for grain development, interferes with plant vascular tissue which can lead to shriveled grain, and it can weaken the stem causing lodging.

Stem Rust

Stem Rust in Oats. Photo by: Pam de Rocquigny, 2014

Crown rust
Crown rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia coronate f.sp avenae. The characteristic symptom is the development of round to oblong, orange to yellow pustules, primarily on leaves but also on stems and heads. The powdery spore masses in the pustules are readily dislodged. The pustule areas turn black with age.

Losses result from damage to leaves (particularly the flag leaf), which leads to reduced photosynthesis and transport of carbohydrates to the developing grain. This causes shriveled grain and reduced grain quality.

Crown Rust

Crown Rust in Oats. Photo by: Pam de Rocquigny, 2014

There isn’t much to be done at this stage of the growing season if rust is found.  However, in future growing seasons control options would include planting resistant varieties, seeding early if possible, and application of fungicides.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, MAFRD Cereal Crops Specialist

For additional information, visit MAFRD’s website:

 

 

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What Causes Blast in Oats?

Over the past week, I have seen pictures or samples of oat panicles where there are empty florets on the panicle.  Oat samples displaying the same symptoms have come into Manitoba Agriculture’s Crop Diagnostic Centre.  Mardi Desjardins, formerly of Manitoba Agriculture, provided the following information on Blast in Oats.

oat blast

Blast in Oats. Photo by Manitoba Agriculture (2014)

Blast in oats can be caused by stresses such as unfavorable growing conditions prior to emergence of the panicle, any time from floret initiation to panicle emergence.  It is a little different from heat sterility related to high temperatures at anthesis and “blasted” florets typically appear incompletely developed.

Factors most commonly linked to blast in oats include insufficient light due to cloudy conditions, temperature extremes, moisture stress, or physical damage from hail.  Florets begin forming several weeks prior to emergence of the panicle and if stresses occur during the development, the least developed florets at time of the stress tend to be aborted. The ones most commonly affected are those toward the base of the panicle and on inner branches of the panicle which are the youngest.  Blasted florets can however, potentially occur throughout the panicle or in a different area of the panicle.

The lower part of the panicle location in the picture above and the incompletely developed nature of the florets in the picture are classic for the environmentally caused “blast”.

Submitted by:  Mardi Desjardins, formerly of the Crop Diagnostic Centre & Pam de Rocquigny, Cereal Crops Specialist, Manitoba Agriculture

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Update to Historical Seeding Progress in Manitoba

Another week has passed and seeding progress was made in some areas of Manitoba, while some producers wait for warmer and drier conditions.  Hopefully many producers are able to make good seeding progress while the sun shines over the next few days.

Last week I provided an update “What is ‘normal’ seeding progress for this time of year?”  http://cropchatter.com/what-is-normal-seeding-progress-for-this-time-of-year/.  That information covered up to end of Week 1 in May.

In Table 2 below, cumulative seeding progress to the end of Week 2 in May for six crop types is provided.  The last five year (2008-2012) average cumulative seeding progress is noted, along with what was seeded in the same timeframe in 2013. (In 2013, Week 2 ended on May 18th).   Please note that data is for final insured crop in the ground.

Table 2:  Historical seeding progress in Manitoba by end of Week 2 in May (2:05).

Crop Cumulative 5 yr Cumulative 2013 (%)
(2008-2012) (%)
Red Spring Wheat 65 54
Barley 58 38
Oats 56 36
Argentine Canola 36 22
Grain Corn 62 79
Soybeans 22 28

Good luck to everyone with their seeding operations and keep safe!

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, MAFRD Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist

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What is ‘normal’ seeding progress for this time of year?

Continuing cold temperatures (both air and soil) and wet conditions are impacting seeding operations across Manitoba, and in other parts of Canada and the Northern United States.  So what is ‘normal’ seeding progress for this time of year, early May?”

Producers who participate in AgriInsurance provides seeding date information to Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC).  This dataset provides us a historical perspective of when seeding has taken place in the past.  Seeding date data information is broken down into a week:month format, i.e. 1:05 is Week 1 in the 5th Month (May).  So 2:05 is Week 2 in May, and so on.

Each week is then categorized dependent on the day of the week in which the month starts.  So if Week 1 starts on a Sunday, there will be 7 days of seeding captured in Week 1.  However, if Week 1 starts on Thursday (like we have in 2014), there are 10 days captured in Week 1.  Confused yet?  Essentially, each year will have a different number of days captured in each weekly timeframe, varying from 5 days up to 12 days.  However, the data still provides good reference points to seeding progress in Manitoba.

In Table 1, cumulative seeding progress to the end of Week 1 in May for six crop types is provided.  The last five year (2008-2012) average cumulative seeding progress is noted, along with what was seeded in the same timeframe in 2013.   Please note that data is for final insured crop in the ground.

 Table 1:  Seeding progress in Manitoba by end of Week 1 in May (1:05).

Crop Cumulative 5 yr  (2008-2012) (%) Cumulative 2013 (%)
Red Spring Wheat 50.0 7.4
Barley 41.3 6.8
Oats 43.4 5.3
Argentine Canola 16.7 1.9
Grain Corn 44.9 12.2
Soybeans 2.4 0.2

 

So, is it time to worry?  I think many are aware of the ability of producers to seed a large amount of acres in a short time frame, as witnessed in 2013.  All we need is Mother Nature to send warm, dry weather our way!

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist

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What are minimum germination temperatures?

Soil temperature is a useful gauge for timing when crops are seeded.  Table 1 shows the minimum germination temperatures for various crops.  These values should be regarded as approximate since germination depends on several factors.  If the soil is too cool, germination can be delayed which can result in uneven or inadequate seedling emergence.

How do I measure soil temperature?

Determine how deep you will be seeding. Then place your soil thermometer at that targetted depth. Take two measurements throughout the day: one in the morning (8am) and one in the early evening (8pm) . Average the two readings to determine the average soil temperature.

MAFRD recommends that you take readings for two to three days to establish a multiple day average, and reminds you to measure temperature in a number of locations in the field, to account for field variability.  Still not sure, see soil temperature data for various locations across Manitoba is available from MAFRI’s Ag-Weather Program:  http://tgs.gov.mb.ca/climate/SoilTemp.aspx.  This can be used as a guideline for an area, but in-field measurements are going to tell you what is actually going on in your field!

Table 1: Minimum Germination Temperatures for Various Crops

Crop Temperature (°C)
Wheat 4
Barley 3
Oats 5
Corn 10
Canola 5
Flax 9
Sunflower 6
Edible Beans 10
Peas 4
Soybeans 10

Sources: North Dakota StateUniversity Extension Service, Alberta Agriculture & Rural Development and Canola Council of Canada

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Happy Robigalia!

The urediniologists at the USDA-ARS Cereal Disease Laboratory sent a greeting today, April 25th,  wishing everyone Happy Robigalia!

You might wonder what Robigalia is.  Instituted by Numa Pompilius (the second king of Rome), the Robigalia, an ancient agricultural festival celebrated in honor of Robigo (or Robigus, the gender was uncertain), the goddess of blight, red rust, or mildew, was celebrated on April 25, when the crops were most vulnerable to disease.  The Robigalia was one of several agricultural festivals in April to celebrate and vitalize the growing season.

The greeting was sent to members of the Cereal Rust Survey listserv list, whose purpose is to provide a format for cereal researchers and extension personnel to share observations of cereal rusts and other cereal diseases.  For more information on the “Cereal Rust Situation Reports” and “Cereal Rust Bulletins”, visit USDA-ARS website at http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/docs.htm?docid=9757

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, MAFRD Cereal Crops Specialist

 

 

 

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Impact of Hail in Cereal Crops

Originally Published September 3, 2014

Impact of hail on cereal crops will depend on growth stage of the crop at the time of the hail event and the severity of damage.  In a study by R.H. Busch in North Dakota in wheat, the greatest yield reduction resulted when stems were broken in the milk stage, followed by anthesis, soft dough, boot, and hard dough stages – see Table below (Busch, 1975).

Grain yield reduction in spring wheat with 100 percent of stems bent.
Growth stage Yield reduction (%)
Boot (Zadoks 45) 28 to 39%
Anthesis (Zadoks 65) 15 to 60%
Milk (Zadoks 75) 30 to 70%
Soft dough (Zadoks 83) 16 to 55%
Hard dough (Zadoks 87) 3 to 47%
Table derived from Busch, 1975

 

Yield losses can also be directly attributed to shattering of the mature crop.  A simple and rough estimate of grain loss requires the use of a one-foot square frame:

  1. Pick a typical area of the field.
  2. Place a 1 ft by 1 ft (inside dimension) box on the ground and count the kernels found within the box.

A one (1) bushel per acre loss equates to 20 wheat kernels per/ft2, 14 barley kernels/ft2 and 10 oat kernels/ft2.  Keep in mind that this is a ‘fudge factor’ but for the purpose of rough field estimation is an adequate estimate.

Remember to please contact your hail insurance provider for their procedures in assessing hail damage as they may be different than what has been provided here.

Source:  Busch, R. H. 1975.  The effect of simulated hail injury on spring wheat. North Dakota AES Bulletin 497. 18 pp.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, MAFRD

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Lodging in Cereal Crops: Part 2 – Timing of Lodging & Impact to Yield

In Part 1 of Lodging in Cereal Crops, we reviewed how lodging impacts yield potential and learned the effects of lodging on final yield will depend largely on growth stage, weather conditions that occur after lodging, and of course the severity of the lodging.  In Part 2, we’ll look a bit deeper at impact of lodging timing on yield potential.

The greatest yield losses will occur when plants lodge in the ten days to two week period following head emergence; losses can range between 15 to 40% depending upon when lodging occurs and how the plant subsequently recovers.

When a crop lodges before flowering, the stem may regain its upright position through ‘goose-necking or elbowing’ if good weather conditions occur afterwards.  However, since plant growth and development has been altered, it can impact flowering, reduce the photosynthetic capability of the plant, and affect carbohydrate assimilation.   Depending on how severe the lodging is and how the plant recovers, lodging at this stage of development can impact both number of kernels per head and individual kernel weight.

If the crop lodges after flowering, the heads will not regain their upright position.  Lodging at this stage of development has more of an impact on kernel weight but severe lodging could also impact the number of kernels per head.

As the crop approaches maturity, yield losses from lodging decrease; losses are due to incomplete grain filling resulting in smaller kernels and lower test weights.  However, yield reduction may instead occur due to increased harvest losses, i.e. neck breakage and loss of whole heads.  If faced with significant lodging within a field, producers who opt to straight combine will likely incur higher losses as opposed to swathing first.

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist, MAFRD

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