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Manitoba Disease & Insect Update – August 8th

A Manitoba Insect and Disease Update for the week of August 4-8, 2014 has been posted at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/insect-report-archive/insect-update-2014-08-08.html.

Highlights Include:

  • Scouting for canola diseases has begun. Blackleg, root rots, white mold, aster yellows and alternaria pod blight will be surveyed.
  • Lygus Bugs in canola – The growth stage where canola has the most potential to have yield reduced by Lygus bugs is the early-podding stage.
  • In corn, scouting for Goss’s wilt and leaf blight disease will help growers understand the status in their crop. A few plants are showing common smut, which is not a serious disease.
  • Some have been asking about red mites seen on the wings of grasshoppers.
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Red mites on grasshoppers.

Submitted by: John Gavloski, Entomologist & Vikram Bisht, Pathologist, MAFRD

 

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Manitoba Insect & Disease Update – Week of July 14th to 18th

A Manitoba Insect and Disease Update for the week of July 14-18, 2014 has been posted at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/insect-report-archive/insect-update-2014-07-16.html

Highlights include:

  • Flowering canola crop needs to be protected against white mold since there have been many rain events lately.
  • Phytophthora root rot of soybean has started showing up, especially in flooded fields.
  • Early lesions of sunflower rust have been found in a 2nd location.
  • Alfalfa weevil levels were quite noticeable in some alfalfa fields, but they are now starting to pupate, so levels are declining.

Submitted by: John Gavloski, Entomologist & Vikram Bisht, Pathologist, MAFRD

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Manitoba Insect & Disease Update – Week of June 30 to July 4

A Manitoba Insect and Disease Update for the week of June 30 to July 4, 2014 has been posted at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/insect-report-archive/2014-07-02-insect-update.html

  • Information is provided on the potential effects of flooded fields on grasshoppers and wireworms.
  • Brown spot and bacterial leaf blight have been occurring in some soybean fields; risk of Fusarium head blight in cereals is high to extremely high.
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Brown spot disease on lower leaves of canopy. Photo courtesy: Vikram Bisht, MAFRD

  • Forecasts for emergence of wheat midge and a key parasitoid of wheat midge are provided.

Submitted by: John Gavloski, Entomologist & Vikram Bisht, Pathologist, MAFRD

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Manitoba Insect & Disease Update – Week of June 23 to 27

A Manitoba Insect and Disease Update for the week of June 23-27, 2014 has been posted at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/insect-report-archive/2014-06-24-insect-update.html

A few quick highlights from the update:

  • Fusarium head blight risk is currently high for winter wheat close to or already heading.
  • Rhizoctonia root rot is also being seen in some soybean fields.
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Rhizoctonia root rot with reddish-brown discoloration. Photo courtesy: Vikram Bisht, MAFRD

  • Cutworms remain a concern in some areas, although levels of larvae should start to decline as they pupate.

Submitted by: John Gavloski, Entomologist & Vikram Bisht, Pathologist, MAFRD

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Manitoba Insect & Disease Update – Week of June 16th

A Manitoba Insect and Disease Update for the week of June 16-20, 2014 has been posted at: http://www.gov.mb.ca/agriculture/crops/seasonal-reports/insect-report-archive/2014-06-17-insect-update.html

Highlights include:

  • Cutworms continue to be an issue in some areas.
  • Flea beetle populations remain a concern in some areas, although the cool weather and advance of many canola fields to stages more tolerant to feeding has resulted in decreased damage.
  • Grasshoppers are emerging, but generally still in the first and second instar stages.
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Juvenile grasshopper (left) and non-economical species of leafhopper (right) (MAFRD)

  • Alfalfa weevil larvae are starting to be noticed in some alfalfa fields.
  • Brown spot (Septoria) and bacterial leaf blight have been observed in soybeans.
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Early stage of bacterial blight spots and brown spot disease on unifoliate leaves of soybean (MAFRD)

Submitted by: John Gavloski, Entomologist & Vikram Bisht, Pathologist, MAFRD

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My winter wheat has been fertilized with nitrogen, but is so thin it is going to be sprayed out and seeded to soybeans. Will the extra nitrogen harm the soybeans?

Answer provided by John Heard, MAFRD Crop Nutrition Specialist

Our initial experiences of soybeans and high nitrogen soils in Manitoba were negative. High soil N tends to inhibit nodulation while at the same time this nitrogen tends to grow slightly larger vegetative plants. However after flowering that nitrogen is often insufficient to provide full yield and protein potential for the crop. So we adopted a thumb rule that if soils had more than 60-75 lb nitrate-N/acre, producers should consider growing a crop other than soybeans.   The other crops should benefit more from the N than the soybeans, which would still take up the nitrogen but may not express full yield and protein. Nitrogen was also seen to trigger iron deficiency chlorosis in soybeans grown in wetter, high lime soils.

But more recently farmers and agronomists have observed that soybeans may perform well on some high N soils. This may be because soybeans have been grown more often and a native reserve of rhizobium exists in many of these cropped soils. With industry partners (AGVISE Labs and ToneAg Consulting) we made observations at 13 field demonstrations in 2013 where high soil N levels were simulated with N application (Heard et al, 2013). Our observations were:

  • Nitrogen at 50-100 lb N/ac reduced nodulation at all sites, but most severely at the virgin or first time soybean sites. Nodule numbers were still generally sufficient on those fields with a previous history of soybeans (Figure 1).
  • Few sites were harvested for yield, but nitrogen affect was more severe on the first year soybeans (reduced yield or lower protein).

Figure 1: Average rhizobium nodules per root from 13 demonstrations in 2013.

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So if one needs to replant soybeans on a field already fertilized with nitrogen consider:

  • Whether well nodulated soybeans have been grown in the past.
  • Treating fields with a history of soybeans as virgin fields by applying full rate of inoculant
  • Even if fields have high N in the spring, soybeans will largely deplete those reserves during the season

One may still wish to avoid planting soybeans if it is a virgin field or if there is risk of iron deficiency chlorosis.

There was no advantage to supplementing properly nodulated soybeans with additional nitrogen at these sites. In US studies, additional nitrogen appears warranted “sometimes” when yields are very high (>65 bu/ac) or when nodulation failures occur due to acid soil, drought or other adverse weather conditions.

References:

Heard, J., J. Lee and R. Tone. 2013. Nitrogen and soybeans: Friends, foes or just wasted fertility? Manitoba Agropnomists Conference 2013.

http://www.umanitoba.ca/faculties/afs/agronomists_conf/media/2013_Heard_N_on_soybeans_friend_foe_or_waste_Dec_3_final.pdf

 

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Update to Historical Seeding Progress in Manitoba

Another week has passed and seeding progress was made in some areas of Manitoba, while some producers wait for warmer and drier conditions.  Hopefully many producers are able to make good seeding progress while the sun shines over the next few days.

Last week I provided an update “What is ‘normal’ seeding progress for this time of year?”  http://cropchatter.com/what-is-normal-seeding-progress-for-this-time-of-year/.  That information covered up to end of Week 1 in May.

In Table 2 below, cumulative seeding progress to the end of Week 2 in May for six crop types is provided.  The last five year (2008-2012) average cumulative seeding progress is noted, along with what was seeded in the same timeframe in 2013. (In 2013, Week 2 ended on May 18th).   Please note that data is for final insured crop in the ground.

Table 2:  Historical seeding progress in Manitoba by end of Week 2 in May (2:05).

Crop Cumulative 5 yr Cumulative 2013 (%)
(2008-2012) (%)
Red Spring Wheat 65 54
Barley 58 38
Oats 56 36
Argentine Canola 36 22
Grain Corn 62 79
Soybeans 22 28

Good luck to everyone with their seeding operations and keep safe!

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, MAFRD Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist

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Fluency Agent & Corn Planting

Corn planting is (slowly) underway across Southern Manitoba, and I’ve received a few questions regarding the use of Fluency Agent.

Below are some requirements (and exceptions) as stated by PMRA for using a seed flow lubricant for planting corn and soybean seed treated with neonicotinoid insecticides (containing the active ingredients clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam).

1) The mandatory use of Fluency Agent only applies when planting corn and soybeansAll other crops are exempt.

2) Fluency Agent must be used if using a seed flow lubricant for planting corn and soybean seed treated with neonicotinoid insecticides (containing the active ingredients clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam). Talc and graphite are not permitted for use as a seed flow lubricant.

3) Exceptions to the above include:

  • Planting machinery that does not currently require the use of a seed flow lubricant. That is, if you haven’t used lubricant before, you don’t need to use the Fluency Agent now.
  • The use of graphite may continue as a mechanical lubricant in finger pickup or mechanical type planters only (i.e. non-pneumatic equipment).

For those who are still in doubt, here is PMRA’s website explaining this criteria and further information on Fluency Agent: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/pubs/pest/_fact-fiche/pollinator-protection-pollinisateurs/treated_seed-2014-semences_traitees-eng.php

The above information was presented in Field Crop News by Tracey Baute (OMAFRA).

 

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What is ‘normal’ seeding progress for this time of year?

Continuing cold temperatures (both air and soil) and wet conditions are impacting seeding operations across Manitoba, and in other parts of Canada and the Northern United States.  So what is ‘normal’ seeding progress for this time of year, early May?”

Producers who participate in AgriInsurance provides seeding date information to Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC).  This dataset provides us a historical perspective of when seeding has taken place in the past.  Seeding date data information is broken down into a week:month format, i.e. 1:05 is Week 1 in the 5th Month (May).  So 2:05 is Week 2 in May, and so on.

Each week is then categorized dependent on the day of the week in which the month starts.  So if Week 1 starts on a Sunday, there will be 7 days of seeding captured in Week 1.  However, if Week 1 starts on Thursday (like we have in 2014), there are 10 days captured in Week 1.  Confused yet?  Essentially, each year will have a different number of days captured in each weekly timeframe, varying from 5 days up to 12 days.  However, the data still provides good reference points to seeding progress in Manitoba.

In Table 1, cumulative seeding progress to the end of Week 1 in May for six crop types is provided.  The last five year (2008-2012) average cumulative seeding progress is noted, along with what was seeded in the same timeframe in 2013.   Please note that data is for final insured crop in the ground.

 Table 1:  Seeding progress in Manitoba by end of Week 1 in May (1:05).

Crop Cumulative 5 yr  (2008-2012) (%) Cumulative 2013 (%)
Red Spring Wheat 50.0 7.4
Barley 41.3 6.8
Oats 43.4 5.3
Argentine Canola 16.7 1.9
Grain Corn 44.9 12.2
Soybeans 2.4 0.2

 

So, is it time to worry?  I think many are aware of the ability of producers to seed a large amount of acres in a short time frame, as witnessed in 2013.  All we need is Mother Nature to send warm, dry weather our way!

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist

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Reminder – Fluency Agent Requirement for 2014

If a producer chooses to use a seed flow lubricant for corn and soybean seed treated with neonicotinoid seed treatments (clothianidin, thiamethoxam or imidacloprid) , they must use the Fluency Agent from Bayer CropScience.  Talc or talc/graphite blends are no longer permitted for this purpose. The PMRA has made the use of the Fluency Agent as a seed flow lubricant a requirement for the 2014 growing season.

The Fluency Agent will be made available from your local seed dealer. It is very important to use the correct amount of Fluency Agent; this rate is 1/8 of a cup per unit of seed (in other words, per 80,000 kernel seed corn unit or 140,000 seed soybean unit).

Thorough mixing of the Fluency Agent with the seed will be required for proper performance.

Carefully follow the use directions on the Fluency Agent label.  Please visit Bayer CropScience’s website at http://www.cropscience.bayer.ca/en/Products/Other/Fluency-Agent.aspx?province=mb for additional information.

Further information on Treated Seed Best Management Practices is available at http://cropchatter.com/updated-treated-seed-best-management-practices/

Submitted by:  Pam de Rocquigny, Provincial Cereal Crops Specialist

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